Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2018 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Potential Application of Yokukansan as a Remedy for Parkinson’s Disease

Figure 1

Schematic flow diagram of the effects of YKS on PD-like symptoms. Clinical and preclinical effects of YKS on symptoms such as sleep disturbance, neuropsychiatry, cognition impairment, pain, and tardive dyskinesia is reported. Multiple mechanisms by which YKS exerts neuroprotective effects identified via regulation of neurotransmission and suppression of neuroinflammation. YKS has a potential application for therapy for neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. RBD=rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder; NPI=neuropsychiatric inventory; EPM=elevated plus maze; CFC=contextual fear conditioning; DOI=2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine; BACS-J=Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese Version; RAM=radial arm maze; NORM=novel object recognition test; Vas=visual analogue scale; PS=pain score; AIMS=involuntary movement scale; PANSS=positive and negative syndrome scale.