Table 3: Neuroprotective effect of YKS on various in vitro systems.

ModelCell typeInducerExtracts/componentsDose/route/regimenMajor findingHistological & biochemical evaluationReference

NeuroprotectionHippocampal neuronsCorticosterone (CORT)YKS100-1000 μg/mL, p.o.; five times every 12 h before cocaine treatmentCell survival rates measured by the WST-8 and LDH assays ↑[52]
Rat cortical neurons20 μM 
Aβ-induced cytotoxicity
YGS10−5 g/L (w/v) for 24 h before exposure to 20 μM AβThe surviving cortical neurons determined by MTT and LDH assays ↑[53]

Oxidative stressPC12 cellsGlutamate (1–17.5 mM)-induced cytotoxicityYKS125-500 μg /mLProtection against PC12 cell death determined by MTT assayReduction of intracellular GSH level ↓[54]
PC12 cellsHydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosisYGS40100 μmol/L of H2O2 for 12 hCytotoxicity determined by MTT and LDH assays ↓Annexin V-positive ↓; caspase-3 activity ↓; Bax ↓; Bcl-2 ↑; MMP loss ↓; activity of SOD ↑; MDA generation ↓[55]

NeurotransmissionChinese hamster ovary 
cells
Competitive binding for 5-HT receptors on CHO (CHO-h5-HT1A) or CHO-K1 
(CHO-K1-h5-HT2A) cells
YKS6.25-400 μg /mLPartial agonistic effect on 5- receptors[56]

LDH=lactate dehydrogenase, MMP=mitochondrial membrane potential, SOD=superoxide dismutase, and MDA=malondialdehyde.