Table 1: List of medicinal plants used with mate and tereré beverages by Paraguayan migrants living in Misiones, Argentina.

Botanical nameLocal namePlant part usedMedicinal useMode of administrationStatusNumber of use reportsRelative importance (RI)Index of Agreement on Species (IAS)

Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze, Asteraceae, CTES0049658TapekueLeaves, aerial partsUlcers, digestion problemsIn mateNative5130,75

Achyrocline flaccida (Weinm.) DC. Asteraceae, CTES0032301; Achyrocline tomentosa Rusby, Asteraceae, CTES0049806Marcela, jate’i ka’aFlowerDigestion problem, stomach ache, hot remedyIn mateNative1726,50,875

Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.,
Arecaceae
CocoLeavesHypertension, digestion problemIn tereréNative318,50,5

Allophylus edulis (A.St.-Hil., A. Juss. & Cambess.) Radlk., Sapindaceae, CTES0026306KokûLeavesCold remedy, digestion problem, heartburn, hapatitis, blood cleansing, hypertension, hangover, prophylacticIn tereréNative3464,50,74

Aloe arborescens Mill.,
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Aloe de hoja angostaLeavesCancer, heart problemIn mateIntroduced318,50,5

Aloysia citriodora Palau, Verbenaceae, CTES0026156CedrónLeavesHeart problemIn mateNative19,50

Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc., Verbenaceae, CTES0049841Poleo de paloLeavesDigestion problemIn mateNative19,50

Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke, Verbenaceae, CTES0032292BurritoLeavesDigestion problem, stomach ache, hypertension, prophylacticIn mateNative12320,72

Aloysia pulchra (Briq.) Moldenke, Verbenaceae, CTES0049842PoleoLeavesInfecctionsIn mateNative19,50

Anethum graveolens L., Apiaceae, BA92101EneldoSeedsDigestion problem, stomach acheIn mateIntroduced2130

Annona muricata L., AnnonaceaeGraviolaLeavesCancerIn mateIntroduced29,51

Aristolochia triangularis Cham., Aristolochiaceae, CTES0026276Ysypo milhombre(s)LianaBlood cleansing, urinary infection, hypertension, cramps, abortive, contraceptive, restores menstruation, venereal disease, digestion problem, infections, internal cold, rheumatism, cure-all, prophylacticIn mateNative281000,55

Artemisia absinthium L., Asteraceae, CTES0030264AjenjoLeavesStomach ache, digestion problem, diabetes, cure-allIn mateIntroduced10300,67

Baccharis gaudichaudiana DC., Asteraceae, CTES0026286Chirca melosaLeavesBlood cleansing, digestion problem, stomach acheIn mateNative322,50

Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., Asteraceae, CTES0032297Jaguarete ka’a, carquejaLeavesDigestion problem, stomach ache, diabetes, high level of cholesterol, blood cleansing, hangoverIn mateNative1950,50,72

Bauhinia forficata Link, Fabaceae, CTES0049618Pata del bueyLeavesKidney infectionIn mate and tereréNative29,51

Bauhinia microstachya (Raddi) J.F.Macbr., Fabaceae, CTES0032148Ka’i escalera, pata del buey’iLianaUrinary infection, liquid retention, diabetesIn mate and tereréNative722,50,67

Begonia cucullata Willd., Begoniaceae, BA92089AgrialLeavesAphthaIn tereréNative19,50

Bidens pilosa L., CTES0049811, Bidens subalternans DC., Asteraceae, CTES0026269Amor seco, picónAerial partsProstate, diabetes, hot remedyIn mateNative3280

Boerhavia diffusa L., Nyctaginaceae, CTES0055777Ka’arurupeAerial partsStomach acheIn tereréIntroduced19,50

Campomanesia sp., Myrtaceae, CTES0049691Yva hái miTree barkDiabetesIn mateNative19,50

Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.) O.Berg, Myrtaceae, CTES0055662GuaviraLeavesDiarrheaIn mateNative19,50

Cecropia pachystachya Trécul, Urticaceae, CTES0032286Amba’yLeaves, young shootsCough, bronchitis, rheumatism, gastritisIn mateNative531,50,25

Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C.E.Jarvis, Vitaceae, CTES0055762InsulinaLeavesDiabetesIn mateNative29,51

Citrus × aurantium L., Rutaceae, CTES0032134ApepuLeaves, fruitNervous tension, high level of cholesterolIn mate and tereréNaturalized218,50

Citrus reticulata Blanco, Rutaceae, CTES0032133MandarinaLeavesCold soreIn mateIntroduced19,50

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, CTES0032133NaranjaLeavesNervous tension, headache, hypertensionIn mateIntroduced527,50,5

Croton sp., Euphorbiaceae, CTES0049687Sangre de gradoTree barkDiabetes, lack of appetiteIn mateNative218,50

Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague, Apiaceae, CTES0049517Apio’iAerial partsCold remedy, hangover, cold soreIn tereréNative522,50,5

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae, CTES0048733CedrónLeavesHeart problems, nervous tension, hypertension, digestion problems, prophylacticIn mate and tereréIntroduced20410,79

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Poaceae, CTES0025340GramillaRootLiquid retensionIn tereréNative19,50

Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) L.G. Lohmann, Bignoniaceae, CTES0049524Uña de gatoRhizomeKidney infection, urinary problems, cold remedyIn tereréNative518,50,5

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants, Amaranthaceae, CTES0032130Ka’arêLeavesHot remedyIn mateIntroduced39,51

Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) Kuntze, Poaceae, CTES0026294Kapi’i cedrónLeavesNervous tensionIn mateNative19,50

Equisetum giganteum L., Equisetaceae, CTES0049521Cola de caballoLeavesKidney infection, urinary problems, liquid retention, kidney stonesIn mate and tereréNative1220,50,72

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Rosaceae, CTES0032147NísperoLeaves, young shootsHypertension, all-cureIn mate and tereréIntroduced218,50

Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. var. pyriformis, Myrtaceae, CTES0048743Yva háiLeavesDiabetes, hypertension, high level of cholesterolIn mate and tereréNative718,50,66

Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, CTES0026288Ñangapiry, pitangaLeavesHypertension, cold remedyIn mate and tereréNative1118,50,82

Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, EuphorbiaceaeTupasy kambyAerial partsLiquid retension, blood cleansingIn mateNative218,50

Euphorbia serpens Kunth, Euphorbiaceae, CTES0026291Tupasy kambyAerial partsCold remedy, vaginal dischargeIn mateNative218,50

Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, CTES0049511Aipo, hinojoAerial partsMuscle pains, overheated stomachIn mate and tereréIntroduced218,50

Gleditsia amorphoides (Griseb.) Taub., Fabaceae, CTES0026088Ñuatî kurusuTree barkHypertension, infectionIn mateNative218,50

Gomphrena celosioides Mart. f. roseiflora (Chodat & Hassl.) Pedersen, Amaranthaceae, CTES0055763PerudillaAerial partsCold remedy, cold soreIn tereréNative4130,67

Guarea macrophylla Vahl subsp. spiciflora (A. Juss.) T.D. Penn., Meliaceae, CTES0026272CedrilloTrunkInernal jab and woundIn mate and tereréNative39,51

Gynerium spp., PoaceaeCaña bravaRootBlood cleansingIn mateNative19,50

Hemionitis tomentosa (Lam.) Raddi, Pteridaceae, CTES0049653DoradillaLeavesVaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, bladder infection, blood cleansingIn mateNative431,50

Heteropterys glabra Hook & Arn., Malpighiaceae, CTES0026280TiloLeaves, flowerHeart problem, nervous tensionIn mateNative218,50

Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron., Asteraceae, CTES0026099Achicoria silvestreRoot, leavesCold remedyIn tereréNative69,51

Jacaranda micrantha Cham., Bignoniaceae, CTES0026265KarobaTree barkBlood cleansing, cure-allIn mateNative718,50,83

Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl.) A.DC., Caricaceae, CTES0032144Jakarati’aLeavesHypertensionIn mateNative19,50

Lactuca virosa Habl., Asteraceae, CTES0030265Lechuga japonesaLeavesHypertensionIn tereréIntroduced19,50

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. ex Britton & P.Wilson, Verbenaceae,
BA92110
SalviaLeaves, flowerMenstrual pain, stomach pain, hot remedy, prophylactic, all-cureIn mateNative850,50,43

Lippia brasiliensis (Link) T.R.S. Silva, Verbenaceae, CTES0049516Jate’i ka’a ka’aguyLeavesAbdomen pain, hot remedy, prophylacticIn mateNative3280

Malva parviflora L., Malvaceae, CTES0049514Malva de castillaLeavesProphylactic during pregnancy, hot remedyIn mateIntroduced218,50

Mangifera indica L., AnacardiaceaeMangoLeaves, seedHypertension, constipationIn mate and tereréIntroduced418,50,67

Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae, CTES0026285ManzanillaInflorescenceMenstrual pain, stomach pain, hot remedy, infections, prophylacticIn mateIntroduced950,50,5

Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek, Celastraceae, CTES0048746KangorosaLeaves, root, barkBlood cleansing, high level of cholesterol, hypertension, internal infections, ulcers, abdomen pain, urinary infection, hot remedyIn mateNative30770,76

Melilotus sp., FabaceaeAlfalfaAerial partsRheumatism, eye problemIn mate and tereréIntroduced218,50

Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, CTES0032129ToronjilLeavesHeart problem, cold remedyIn mate and tereréIntroduced218,150

Mentha sp., Lamiaceae Mentha spicata L. CTES0030909Menta, menta’iLeavesNervous tension, heart problem, hypertension, headache, intestinal problems, abdomen pain, hot remedy, cold remedy, yerba mate additiveIn mate and tereréIntroduced1658,250,53

Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, CTES0049652MoringaLeavesDiabetes, high level of cholesterol, cancer, ulcers, digestion problem, kidney infection, urinary problem, prophylactic, all-cureIn mate and tereréIntroduced1569,250,43

Morus alba L., Moraceae, CTES0049525MoraLeavesHypertension, excessive libidoIn mate and tereréIntroduced218,50

Myrocarpus frondosus Allemao, FabaceaeInciensoTree barkUlcersIn mateNative19,50

Ocimum cf. basilicum var. anisatum Benth, Lamiaceae, CTES0030915AnísLeavesProphylacticIn mateIntroduced318,51

Panicum tricholaenoides Steud., Poaceae, CTES0032493Cola de caballoLeavesKidney infectionIn mate and tereréNative29,51

Parietaria debilis G. Forst., Urticaceae, CTES0055778Ka’a pikyAerial partsCold remedy, cold sore, nervous tension,In tereréNative1431,50,85

Parietaria judaica L., Urticaceae, CTES0049674BuscapinaLeavesDigestion problemIn mateIntroduced19,50

Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae, CTES0032140MburukujaLeavesNervous tensionIn tereréNative19,50

Peperomia circinnata Link, Piperaceae, CTES0049675Jatevu ka’aEntire plantHypertensionIn tereréNative29,51

Persea americana Mill., LauraceaePaltaSeedsKidney infectionIn mateNaturalized19,50

Persea americana var. drimyfolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) S.F.Blake, Lauraceae, BA92058Palta anísLeavesHeart problem, liver problem, cold remedyIn mate and tereréNaturalized3280

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss, Apiaceae, CTES0049501PerejílLeavesCold remedyIn tereréIntroduced19,50

Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, CTES0026299Rompepiedras, quebrapiedra, para’paraiAerial partsKidney infection, urinary problems, liquid retentionIn mate and tereréNative7170,67

Piper mikanianum (Kunth) Steud., Piperaceae, CTES0032289PariparobaLeavesHeart problem, abdomen pain, hot remedyIn mateNative5280,5

Plantago australis Lam., Plantaginaceae,
BA92072
LlanténLeavesFlu, sore throat, infections, cold sore, blood cleansing, prophylactic, cure-allIn mateNative1054,50,33

Pluchea sagittalis Less., Asteraceae, CTES0048748Yerba del luceroLeavesDigestion problemIn mateNative19,50

Rollinia salicifolia Schltdl., Annonaceae, CTES0026257AratikuLeaves, flowerHypertension, diabetesIn mateNative418,50,67

Rosa sp., Rosaceae, CTES0049673RosaFlowerConstipationIn mateIntroduced19,50

Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, CTES0049845RomeroLeavesHeart problem, nervous tension, abdomen pain, stomach pain, high level of cholesterol, hypertension, blood cleansing, hot remedy, headache, imporves memory, prophylactic, all-cure, yerba mate additiveIn mateIntroduced3284,50,65

Ruta chalepensis L., Rutaceae, CTES0026289RudaLeavesSore throat, prophylacticIn mateIntroduced318,50,5

Scoparia dulcis L., Plantaginaceae, CTES0049830Typycha kuratûAerial partsDigestion problem, stomach ache, diabetesIn mateNative322,50

Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Cucurbitaceae, CTES0026263Chuchu, xuxuLeavesHypertensionIn mateNaturalized19,50

Sida cordifolia L., Malvaceae, CTES0026266Malva blancaLeaves, flowerVaginal discharge, vaginal infection, irregular menstruation, menstrual pain, prophylactic during pregnancy, hot remedy, blood cleansing, kidney infection, urinary problemIn mateNative19620,55

Smallanthus connatus (Spreng.) H.Rob., Asteraceae, CTES0049444Jaguarete poLeavesDiabetes, high level of cholesterol, stomach acheIn mate and tereréNative7280,67

Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam., Solanaceae, CTES0032288Ñuatî pytâRootUrinary infectionIn tereréIntroduced19,50

Solidago chilensis Meyen,
Asteraceae, CTES0049655
Teju ka’a, yerba del lagartoAerial partsProphylacticIn mateNative19,50

Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) W.C. Burger, Lanj.&Wess. Boer, Moraceae, CTES0026282ÑandypaRoot, leavesHigh level of cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, blood cleansingIn mateNative15320,78

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl, Verbenaceae, CTES0055765Tatu ruguái, verbena tatu ruguáiAerial partsProstate, male aphrodisiacIn mate and tereréNative2130

Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, Asteraceae, CTES0049664Ka’a he’êLeavesHeartburn, diabetes, prophylacticIn mateNative4280,33

Styrax leprosus Hook. & Arn., Styracaceae, CTES0026167Carne de vacaTree barkDiabetes, high level of cholesterolIn mateNative418,50,67

Tabernaemontana catharinensis A.DC., Apocynaceae, CTES0049506HorqueteroLeavesDiabetes, high level of cholesterolIn mateNative218,50

Tagetes minuta L., Asteraceae, CTES0026292SuicoLeaves, flowerIntestinal parasites, empacho (folk illness)In mateNative218,50

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip., Asteraceae, CTES0049661Manzanilla guasuFlowerStomach acheIn mateIntroduced19,50

Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd., Urticaceae, CTES0026278Ortiga grandeRootUrinary problem, liquid retension, blood cleansingIn tereréNative422,50,33

Verbena litoralis Kunth, Verbenaceae, CTES0026305;
Verbena montevidensis Spreng.,
Verbenaceae, BA92064
VerbenaLeavesStomach ache, digestion problem, lack of appetite, fever, diabetes, cold remedy, blood cleansing, hangover, headache, cure-allIn tereréNative18660,59

Xanthium spinosum L., Asteraceae, CTES0049666Cepacaballo, abrojitoLeavesDigestion problem, liver problem, cold remedyIn mate and tereréIntroduced322,50

Zea mays L., PoaceaeBarba de chocloFlowerUrinary problemIn mateIntroduced29,51