Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Acute Effects of Tai Chi Training on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Responses in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Pilot Study

Table 2

Outcome measurements between the two groups (pretest, during intervention and posttest) and within individual groups.

Tai Chi group  
Control group  
Group × time interaction effect Group effect Time effect
Mean ± SDMean ± SD value value value

Cognitive states
Attention level
 Pretest54.27 ± 14.0348.55 ± 16.450.0060.1120.323
 Intervention60.01 ± 9.2445.86 ± 9.43
 Posttest48.35 ± 10.2648.04 ± 14.37
Meditation level
 Pretest60.24 ± 14.7058.06 ± 14.530.2030.4550.74
 Intervention67.03 ± 9.8858.38 ± 7.24
 Posttest57.41 ± 12.8556.22 ± 7.50
Perceived stress level
 Pretest11.40 ± 7.2415.50 ± 4.30<0.001<0.0010.626
 Posttest8.55 ± 5.8715.35 ± 3.47
Cardiovascular responses
Heart rate (beats per minute)
 Pretest78.15 ± 11.8271.25 ± 10.27<0.0010.0030.002
 Intervention88.40 ± 11.9973.83 ± 7.63
 Posttest82.95 ± 10.6773.25 ± 7.65
Oxygen saturation in blood (%)
 Pretest97.65 ± 1.3997.15 ± 1.730.3820.2900.523
 Intervention97.85 ± 0.9297.91 ± 1.13
 Posttest97.95 ± 1.3298.05 ± 1.23
Palmar skin temperature (°C)
 Pretest29.42 ± 3.9429.92 ± 2.490.1920.0980.046
 Posttest29.69 ± 3.9129.98 ± 2.77

Group by Time Interaction, Group and Time Effects. denotes a difference significant at < 0.05. Within Group. denotes a difference significant at < 0.017 when compared with pretest values; denotes a difference significant at < 0.017 when compared with intervention values; denotes a difference significant at < 0.05 when compared with pretest values. Between Groups. denotes a difference significant at < 0.05 when compared with the control group.

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