Figure 3: The effects of various solvent fractions of E. cava extract on viability of and lipid peroxidation in HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to PM10. In (a), E. cava extract was fractionated into the methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butyl alcohol (BA), and water (WT) fractions. In (b) and (c), the cells were exposed to PM10 (100 μg mL−1) for 48 h in the absence and presence of each fraction (100 μg mL−1). The cell viability (b) and cellular lipid peroxidation (c) were determined. The data are presented as the percentage of the control values (mean ± SE, ). < 0.05 versus control and < 0.05 versus PM10 control.