Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2018, Article ID 9070927, 17 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9070927
Review Article

Bougainvillea Genus: A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Calle Leñeros, Esquina Iztaccíhuatl s/n. Col. Volcanes, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México, C.P. 62350, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Vera L. Petricevich; xm.meau@hcivecirtep.arev

Received 20 February 2018; Revised 17 April 2018; Accepted 21 May 2018; Published 24 June 2018

Academic Editor: Wen-yi Kang

Copyright © 2018 Rodolfo Abarca-Vargas and Vera L. Petricevich. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. The Plants List. Bougainvillea. Available at: http://www.theplantlist.org./tpl1.1/search?q=Bougainvillea. (Accessed: 1st October 2017).
  2. K. D. Kobayashi, J. McConnell, and J. Griffis, Bougainvillea. Ornamentals and Flowersk, Available at: http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/2959/1/OF-38.pdf. 2007.
  3. R. Gobato, A. Gobato, and D. F. G. Fedrigo, “Study of the molecular electrostatic potential of D-Pinitol an active hypoglycemic principle found in Spring flower-Three Marys, (Bougainvillea species) in the Mm+ method,” Parana Journal of Science and Education, vol. 2, pp. 1–9, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  4. N. Sahu and J. Saxena, “Bougainvillea glabra a Natural Antioxidant: A Review,” Chemistry, vol. 46, pp. 4113–4117, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. C. Monroy-Ortiz and R. Monroy, “Las plantas, compañeras de siempre: la experiencia en Morelos,” (UAEM, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas de la CONABIO CONANP), 2006.
  6. S. Tripathi, S. Singh, and R. K. Roy, “Pollen morphology of Bougainvillea (Nyctaginaceae): A popular ornamental plant of tropical and sub-tropical gardens of the world,” Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, vol. 239, pp. 31–46, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Argueta Villamar, L. M. Cano Asseleih, and M. L. Rodarte, Atlas de las plantas de las Medicina Tradicional Mexicana, Instituto Nacional Indigenista, 1994.
  8. S. Sangthong, P. Suksabye, and P. Thiravetyan, “Air-borne xylene degradation by Bougainvillea buttiana and the role of epiphytic bacteria in the degradation,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 126, pp. 273–280, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Piattelli and F. Imperato, “Pigments of Bougainvillea glabra,” Phytochemistry, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 2557–2560, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Beltrà, A. Soto, J. Germain et al., “The Bougainvillea mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus, a rapid invader from South America to Europe,” Entomologia Hellenica, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 137, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Z. Islam, M. T. Hossain, F. Hossen, M. S. Akter, and M. A. Mokammel, “In-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Bougainvillea glabra flower,” Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 228–236, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. P. Maran, B. Priya, and C. V. Nivetha, “Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigments from Bougainvillea glabra flowers,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 63, pp. 182–189, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Yang, K. Zhang, D. Li et al., “Morphological investigation and classification research of 18 bougainvillea,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, ICMTMA '16, pp. 401–404, March 2016. View at Scopus
  14. A. H. Ahmed, “New flavone from the aerial parts of Bougainvillea glabra,” International Journal of Computer Engineering Research, vol. 4, pp. 1–5, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  15. Y. Schlein, R. L. Jacobson, and G. C. Müller, “Sand fly feeding on noxious plants: A potential method for the control of Leishmaniasis,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 300–303, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. Kaisoon, I. Konczak, and S. Siriamornpun, “Potential health enhancing properties of edible flowers from Thailand,” Food Research International, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 563–571, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. J. Perales and M. Leysa, “Phytochemical screening and antibacterial acitivity of Bougainvillea glabra plant extract as potential sources of antibacterial and resistance-modifying agents,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Life Science and Engineering, pp. 121–125, 2012.
  18. G. I. Adebayo, O. T. Alabi, B. V. Owoyele, and A. O. Soladoye, “Anti-diabetic properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Bougainvillea glabra (Glory of the Garden) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats,” Records of Natural Products, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 187–192, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Srivastava, S. Shukla, A. Soni, and A. Kumar, “RAPD-based genetic relationships in different Bougainvillea cultivars,” Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 154–163, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. O. Adebayo, A. A. Adesokan, L. A. Olatunji, D. O. Buoro, and A. O. Soladoye, “Effect of ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on haematological and serum lipid variables in rats,” Biokemistri, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. N. Mishra, S. Joshi, V. L. Tandon, and A. Munjal, “Evaluation of anti-fertility potential of aqueous extract of bougainvillea spectabilis leaves in swiss albino mice,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, vol. 1, pp. 19–23, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. N. Vukovic, M. Kacaniova, L. Hleba, and S. Sukdolak, “Chemical Composition of the Essential oil of Bougainvillea spectabilis from Montenegro,” Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 212–215, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. S. Ali, S. A. Ibrahim, F. Ahmed, and M. K. Pervez, “Color versus bioactivity in the flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nyctaginaceae),” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. T. M. Do, T. Aree, P. Siripong, T. N. K. Pham, P. K. P. Nguyen, and S. Tip-Pyang, “Bougainvinones A-H, peltogynoids from the stem bark of purple bougainvillea spectabilis and their cytotoxic activity,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 939–945, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. J. Bisigato, M. V. Campanella, and G. E. Pazos, “Plant phenology as affected by land degradation in the arid Patagonian Monte, Argentina: A multivariate approach,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 91, pp. 79–87, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Abarca-Vargas, C. F. Peña Malacara, and V. L. Petricevich, “Characterization of chemical compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in bougainvillea x buttiana holttum and standl, (Var. rose) extracts,” Antioxidants, vol. 5, no. 4, article no. 45, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. J. Alonso-Castro, J. R. Zapata-Morales, A. J. Ruiz-Padilla et al., “Use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 198, pp. 81–86, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. V. Guerrero, R. A. Vargas, and V. L. Petricevich, “Chemical compounds and biological activity of an extract from bougainvillea x buttiana (var. rose) holttum and standl,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 42–46, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. R. V. Guerrero, R. Abarca-Vargas, and V. L. Petricevich, “Analgesic effect of ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea x buttiana (Var. Rose) Holttum Standl,” EC Pharmacol. Toxicol, vol. 2, pp. 224–230, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. Arteaga Figueroa, R. Abarca-Vargas, C. García Alanis, and V. L. Petricevich, “Comparison between peritoneal macrophage activation by Bougainvillea x buttiana extract and LPS and/or interleukins,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, 11 pages, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. S. Singh, S. K. Reddu, S. K. Sharma, and M. Ali, “New unsaturated fatty acid from roots of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 4744–4748, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. J. Soares, D. T. Rodrigues, M. B. Gonçalves et al., “Paraquat exposure-induced Parkinson's disease-like symptoms and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster: Neuroprotective effect of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 95, pp. 245–251, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. T. Do, T. Aree, P. Siripong et al., “Cytotoxic flavones from the stem bark of bougainvillea spectabilis willd,” Planta Medica, vol. 84, no. 02, pp. 129–134, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. S. Jawla, Y. Kumar, and M. S. Y. Khan, “Isolation of antidiabetic principle from Bougainvillea spectabilis willd (Nyctaginaceae) stem bark,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 761–765, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Simon, G. Tóth, H. Duddeck, H. S. M. Soliman, I. I. Mahmoud, and H. Samir, “Glycosides from Bougainvillea glabra,” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 63–67, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. R. Nayayanan, D. D. Joshi, A. M. Mujumdar, and V. V. Dhekne, “Pinitol-A new anti-diabetic compound from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis,” Current Science, vol. 56, pp. 139–141, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Piattelli and F. Imperato, “Betacyanins from bougainvillea,” Phytochemistry, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 455–458, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Heuer, S. Richter, J. W. Metzger, V. Wray, M. Nimtzt, and D. Strack, “Betacyanins from bracts of Bougainvillea glabra,” Phytochemistry, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 761–767, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. A. Imperato, “A branched trisaccharide in the betacyanins of Bougainvillea glabra,” Phytochemistry, vol. 14, no. 11, p. 2526, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Jerz, S. Wybraniec, N. Gebers, and P. Winterhalter, “Target-guided separation of Bougainvillea glabra betacyanins by direct coupling of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1217, no. 27, pp. 4544–4554, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Kumara Swamy, K. M. Sudipta, P. Lokesh et al., “Phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis flower extracts,” International Journal of Phytomedicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 375–379, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Chowdhury, S. Pal, T. Sharmin et al., “Bioactivities of artocarpus chaplasha roxb. and bougainvillea spectabillis willd,” Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 16, pp. 63–68, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. V. Gupta, M. George, L. Joseph, M. Singhal, and H. P. Singh, “Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Bougainvillea glabra ‘snow white’ and Bougainvillea glabra ‘choicy’,” Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 1, pp. 233–237, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. Napoleon, S. K. Swetha, and G. Angajala, “In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial studies of betacyanin isolated from the bracts of Bougainvillea glabra,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 84–87, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  45. E. Edwin, E. Sheeja, E. Toppo, V. Tiwari, and K. R. Dutt, “Efecto antimicrobiano, antiulceroso y antidiarreico de las hojas de buganvilla (Bougainvillea glabra Choisy),” Ars Pharmaceutica, vol. 48, pp. 135–144, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Dhankhar, M. Sharma, S. Ruhil, M. Balhara, M. Kumar, and A. K. Chhillar, “Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Bougainvillea spectabilis,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 178–182, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. A. Alanís-Garza, G. M. González-González, R. Salazar-Aranda, N. Waksman de Torres, and V. M. Rivas-Galindo, “Screening of antifungal activity of plants from the northeast of Mexico,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 468–471, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Elumalai, M. C. Eswaraiah, K. M. Lahari, and H. A. Shaik, “In-vivo screening of Bougainvillea glabra leaves for its analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 85–87, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  49. A. L. Alvarez Perez Gil, L. Barbosa Navarro, M. Patipo Vera, and V. L. Petricevich, “Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea x buttiana,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 712–719, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. Manivannan, R. Kothai, B. Arul, and S. Rajaram, “Anti-inflammatory activity of bougainvillea spectabilis linn,” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 642–646, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. C. Eswaraiah, A. Elumalai, A. Boddupalli, and R. K. Gollapalli, “Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Bougainvillea glabra leaves,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 21, pp. 16–19, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  52. O. M. E. Abdel-Salam, E. R. Youness, N. A. Ahmed et al., “Bougainvillea spectabilis flowers extract protects against the rotenone-induced toxicity,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 478–490, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Elumalai, M. C. Eswariah, C. H. Chowdary, R. Kumar, M. Anusha, and K. Naresh, “Screening of thrombolytic activity of Bougainvillea glabra leaves extract by in-vitro,” Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 2, pp. 134–136, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  54. S. K. Sherwani, M. M. Khan, A. Zubair, M. A. Shah, and S. Kazmi, “Evaluation of in vitro thrombolytic activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaf extract,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 21, pp. 6–9, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  55. L. Arteaga Figueroa, L. Barbosa Navarro, M. Patiño Vera, and V. L. Petricevich, “Preliminary studies of the immunomodulator effect of the Bougainvillea x buttiana extract in a mouse model,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 479412, 9 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. E. V. Ikpeme, U. B. Ekaluo, O. U. Udensi, E. E. Ekerette, and M. Pius, “Phytochemistry and reproductive activities of male albino rats treated with crude leaf extract of great bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis),” Asian Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 367–373, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Saikia and A. Lama, “Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on serum lipids in albino rats fed with high fat diet,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, vol. 3, pp. 141–145, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  58. B. Garg, N. M. Srivastava, and S. Srivastava, “Antihyperlipidemic effect of Bougainvillea glabra leaves in triton wr-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats,” Der Pharmacia Lettre, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 187–190, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. Mandal, C. Chatterjee, and M. Chatterjee, “Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models,” Pharmacognosy Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 18–22, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. N. Okigbo, C. L. Anuagasi, J. E. Amadi, and U. J. Ukpabi, “Potential inhibitory effects of some African tuberous plant extracts on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans,” International Journal of Integrative Biology, vol. 6, pp. 91–98, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  61. P. Chauhan, S. Mahajan, A. Kulshrestha et al., “Bougainvillea spectabilis exhibits antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in experimental diabetes,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 177–185, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. Joshny, D. Ramya Devi, and B. N. Vedha Hari, “Phytochemical and in-vitro anthelmintic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Bougainvillea glabra,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 115–117, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. A. Figueroa, L. B. Navarro, M. P. Vera, and V. L. Petricevich, “Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and cytotoxicity evaluation of Bougainvillea x buttiana,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 497–502, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Medpilwar, D. Maru, M. Upadhyay, N. Lavania, M. Vernekar, and M. Harmalkar, “In-vitro antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activity of ethanolic extracts of bougainvillea shubhra, bougainvillea peruviana and bougainvillea bhuttiana golden glow: A comparative study,” Journal of Natural Remedies, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. Sahu and J. Saxena, “Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of Bougainivllea glabra, ‘Choicy’,” World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 397–401, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  66. K. V. Bhaskara Rao, H. Nidhi, D. Dipankar, D. Garima, G. Kumar, and L. Karthik, “Phytochemical profile, in vitro antioxidant property and HPTLC analysis of methanol extract of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae),” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 235–241, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. N. Naidu, R. Srilekhs, V. Pethuru, B. Anusha, E. Kejiya, and E. B. Lakshmamma, “Evolution of anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Bougainvillea glabra flowers,” Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 2, pp. 67–71, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  68. R. N. Venkatachalam, K. Singh, and T. Marar, “Bougainvillea spectabilis, a good source of antioxidant phytochemicals,” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 605–613, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  69. S. Bhatia and M. L. Lodha, “RNase and DNase activities of antiviral proteins from leaves of Bougainvillea x buttiana,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 152–155, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Narwal, A. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Sadhna, H. C. Kapoor, and M. L. Lodha, “A systemic resistance inducing antiviral protein with N-glycosidase activity from Bougainvillea x buttiana leaves,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB), vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 600–603, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. S. Rao, A. Nagaiah, G. D. Kumar, L. Saiprasanth, and R. D. Kumar, “Cardiotonic activity of aqueous flower extract of Bougainvillea glabra,” International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry, vol. 3, pp. 513–517, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. Lamien-Meda, C. Lamien, M. Compaoré et al., “Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso,” Molecules, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 581–594, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. Marvin, MarvinSketch 18.4, 2018, http://www.chemaxon.com.
  74. S. Jawla, Y. Kumar, and M. S. Y. Khan, “Hypoglycemic potential of Bougainvillea spectabilis root bark in normal and Alloxaninduced diabetic rats,” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 3, pp. 73–87, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. B. N. Joshi, M. Bhat, S. K. Kothiwale, A. R. Tirmale, and S. Y. Bhargava, “Antidiabetic properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In vivo studies in murine diabetes model,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 561625, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. B. N. Joshi, M. Bhat, S. S. Zinjarde, S. Y. Bhargava, and A. R. Kumar, “Antidiabetic Indian plants: a good source of potent amylase inhibitors,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 810207, 6 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Jawla, Y. Kumar, and M. S. Y. Khan, “Hypoglycemic activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis stem bark in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. S919–S923, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. U. M. Gómez Bache, L. Barbosa Navarro, and V. L. Petricevich, “Estudio preliminar del efecto hipoglucemico del extracto de Bougainivillea x buttiana (variedad naranja) en modelo murino,” Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, vol. 47, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  79. A. M. El-Mahmood and J. H. Doughari, “Bacteriological examination of some diluted disinfectants routinely used in the Specialist Hospital Yola, Nigeria,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 185–190, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. Mishra and V. L. Tandon, “Haematological effects of aqueous extract of ornamental plants in male swiss albino mice,” Veterinary World, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus