Table 1: Characteristics of the included studies in meta-analysis.

StudyDiagnostic
criteria
Type of the
control group
Treatment
duration
Age (years)Percentage of
men
Intervention drugsSymptom improvementAdverse
event
CaseControlCaseControlCaseControlCaseControl

Chen and Wang, 2014 [14]DESSStimulant laxatives4 weeks55–7853–795548MBYT (36.0 g, DE, TID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)85.0%
(34/40)
80.0%
(32/40)
Included
Duan, 2014 [15]CGND/RIIICStimulant laxatives3 weeks57–6956–685046MBYT (45.0 g, DE, TID)Phenolphthalein (100 mg, TA, QD)100.0%
(50/50)
84.0%
(42/50)
NR
Hu et al., 2012 [16]CGNDStimulant laxatives4 weeks4036MBYT (38.0 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)92.9%
(39/42)
71.4%
(30/42)
Included
Huang, 2007 [17]DESSStimulant laxatives2 weeks4644MBYT (69.5 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)95.8%
(46/48)
87.5%
(42/48)
NR
Jin, 2014 [18]DESSStimulant laxatives4 weeks59–8459–836664MBYT (41.0 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)92.0%
(46/50)
80.0%
(40/50)
Included
Li et al., 2014 [19]DESSStimulant laxatives3 weeks66–8265–845470MBYT (28.5 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)80.0%
(28/35)
51.5%
(17/33)
Included
Liu, 2008 [20]DESSStimulant laxatives4 weeks55–8252–803832MBYT (60.5 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)86.2%
(25/29)
78.6%
(22/28)
Included
Pan, 2013 [21]DESS/RIICStimulant laxatives2 weeks62–7663–756055MBYT (56.5 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (100 mg, TA, QD)90.0%
(18/20)
70.0%
(14/20)
NR
Shen, 2011 [22]DESSStimulant laxatives10 days60–7860–807570MBYT (40.0 g, DE, BID)Bisacodyl (5 mg, TA, TID)98.8%
(79/80)
80.0%
(32/40)
NR
Wang et al., 2014 [23]DESSStimulant laxatives1 week57–8754–867164MBYT (38.0 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)90.5%
(38/42)
66.7%
(28/42)
Included
Wu et al., 2013 [24]CGND/RIIICStimulant laxatives2 weeks3750MBYT (64.5 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein
(100 mg, TA, QD)
90.0%
(27/30)
70.0%
(21/30)
NR
Yang and Chu 2014 [25]CGNDStimulant laxatives5 weeks45–8142–835350MBYT (60.5 g, DE, BID)Bisacodyl (5 mg, TA, QD)93.8%
(30/32)
71.9%
(23/32)
NR
Yang, 2011 [26]DESSStimulant laxatives2 weeks4542MBYT (48.5 g, DE, BID)Phenolphthalein (200 mg, TA, QD)90.0%
(36/40)
77.5%
(31/40)
NR
Shen et al., 2014 [27]CGNDOsmotic laxatives1 week22–7122–715858MBYT (47.5 g, DE, BID)Duphalac (10 g, SO, BID)95.0%
(19/20)
72.0%
(18/25)
NR
Fu, 2016 [28]CGND/DESSProkinetic agents4 weeks5857MBYT (41.0 g, DE, BID)Cisapride (5 mg, TA, TID)93.3%
(56/60)
81.7%
(49/60)
Included
He, 2010 [29]DESSProkinetic agents2 weeks18–7218–724242MBYT (64.5 g, DE, BID)Cisapride (5 mg, TA, BID)96.0%
(96/100)
68.0%
(34/50)
Hui and Li, 2012 [30]DESSProkinetic agents2 weeks6367MBYT (47.5 g, DE, BID)Cisapride (5 mg, TA, TID)90.0%
(27/30)
83.3%
(25/30)
NR
Song, 2010 [31]CGND/DESS
/RIIC
Prokinetic agents4 weeks5655MBYT (70.0 g, DE, BID)Cisapride (5 mg, TA, TID)92.3%
(36/39)
85.0%
(34/40)
NR
Xu et al., 2012 [32] DESS/RIIICProkinetic agents20 days5050MBYT (3.0 g, PI, TID)Mosapride (10 mg, TA, TID)60.0%
(24/40)
67.5%
(27/40)
NR
Biofeedback20 days4848MBYT (3.0 g, PI, TID) + Biofeedback (QD)Biofeedback (QD)97.5%
(39/40)
55.0%
(22/40)
NR
Zhang et al., 2016 [33]CGND/DESS
/RIIIC
Prokinetic agents60 days18–6618–685347MBYT (28.5 g, DE, BID)Cisapride (5 mg, TA, TID)92.1%
(35/38)
68.4%
(26/38)
NR
Li and Xin, 2011 [13]DESS/RIIICOsmotic laxatives4 weeks45–8645–864848MBYT (3.0 g, GR, BID) + Duphalac (667 mg, SO, BID)Duphalac (667 mg, SO, BID)28.8%
(24/29)
58.6%
(17/29)
Included
Zheng et al., 2013 [34]CGND/DESS
/RIIIC
Osmotic laxatives3 weeks30–8029–775753MBYT (120.0 g, DE, QD) + PEG4000
(20 g, PO, QD)
PEG4000 (20 g, PO, QD)90.0%
(27/30)
73.3%
(22/30)
Included
Deng, 2012 [35]CGNDProkinetic agents3 weeks59–7857–794146MBYT (50.5 g, DE, BID) + Cisapride (10 mg, TID)Cisapride (10 mg, TA, TID)89.7%
(35/39)
66.7%
(26/39)
NR
Xu, 2012 [36]DESS/RIIICProkinetic agents4 weeks>60>606055MBYT (34.3 g, DE, TID) + Mosapride (5 mg, TA, TID)Mosapride (5 mg, TA, TID)87.5%
(35/40)
77.5%
(31/40)
Included
Huang, 2003 [37]DESSBiofeedback2 weeks35–5035–5000MBYT (3.0 g, PI, QD) + Kegel exercises (QD)Kegel exercises (QD)98.0%
(49/50)
70.0%
(28/40)
NR

MBYT: Modified Buzhong-Yiqi-Tang; CGND: clinical guideline of new drugs for TCM; DESS: diagnostic efficacy of standard TCM syndrome; RIIC: Rome II Criteria; RIIIC: Rome III Criteria; DE, decoction; GR, granules; PI, pill; PO, powder; SO, solution; TA, tablet; QD, once a day; BID, twice a day; TID, three times a day; NR, no record.