Aster glehni Extract Containing Caffeoylquinic Compounds Protects Human Keratinocytes through the TRPV4-PPARδ-AMPK Pathway
Western blot analyses for TRPV4, AMPK, PPAR, and SPTLC2, and ICC for keratin, involucrin, defensin1, and TNF in HaCaT cells treated with caffeoylquinic acid. CQA increased protein levels for TRPV4, PPARδ, AMPK, SPTLC2, keratin, involucrin, and defensinβ1 (a, b); however, it decreased TNFα expression (b). Images were taken at 200 × magnification. The results are expressed as means ± SEM. N=3 for each group. Values were statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test. All experiments were repeated over three times.
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