Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2019 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Survey of Integrative Treatment Practices of Korean Medicine Doctors for Cervical Disc Herniation: Preliminary Data for Clinical Practice Guidelines

Table 4

Diagnostic tools most frequently used for cervical disc herniation and Korean Medicine syndrome differentiation of symptoms.

Factorsn (%)


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI196 (99.5)
Simple X-ray192 (97.5)
Computed tomography (CT)136 (69.0)
Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI)19 (9.6)
Electromyogram14 (7.1)

Main points of consideration in reading MRI images

Degree of nerve 172 (87.3)
Degree of intervertebral disc displacement141 (71.6)
Correlations between level(s) of disc displacement on MRI and clinical symptoms119 (60.4)
Number and level of displaced discs55 (27.9)
Degree of intervertebral disc degeneration31 (15.7)
Vertebral alignment29 (14.7)

Physical examination

Spurling 169 (85.8)
Foraminal compression test87 (44.2)
Manual muscle testing72 (36.5)
Adson’s test56 (28.4)
Distraction test54 (27.4)
Sensory testing30 (15.2)
Valsalva test27 (13.2)
Hoffmann’s sign23 (11.7)
Traction test: distraction of arm while taking pulse14 (7.1)

Korean Medicine syndrome differentiation theories

Eight-principle pattern identification (八綱辨證137 (69.5)
Meridian system diagnosis (經絡辨證)128 (65.0)
Etiological Factor syndrome differentiation (病因辯證)95 (48.2)
Qi and Blood diagnosis (氣血辨證)68 (34.5)
Organ system diagnosis (臟腑辨證)60 (30.5)
Six meridian diagnoses ()44 (22.3)
Sasang constitutional medicine diagnosis (四象體質辨證)36 (18.3)

Korean Medicine classifications associated with CDH

Stagnation of Qi and coagulation of blood (氣滯血瘀174 (88.3)
Lack and deficiency of liver and kidney + exopathogen (肝腎虧虛+外邪)105 (53.3)
Deficiency of Qi and blood (氣血虛)101 (51.3)
Wind-heat with dampness (風熱挾濕)64 (32.5)
Exuberance of Yang of the liver (肝陽上亢)53 (26.9)
Wind-dampness exogenous affection (外感風濕)46 (23.4)

Factor most frequently ranked
MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; CDH, cervical disc herniation.

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