Table 1: Effect of ginger on degenerative disease (in vitro studies).

Related diseaseConstituentEffectsReferences

Alzheimer’s diseaseGinger root extract(i) Showed antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activity
(ii) Inhibitory effects towards butyrylcholinesterase
(iii) Increased cell survival following β-amyloid expression.
Tung et al. [30]
6-Gingerol(i) Suppressed the expression of β-amyloid
(ii) Increased the expression of antioxidant enzyme
(iii) Restored glutathione level
Lee et al. [102]

Parkinson’s disease6-Shogaol(i) Protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP- and MPP+-induced neurotoxicityPark et al. [106]
6-Shogaol(i) Inhibited the release of NO and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)Ha et al. [107]

Type 2 diabetes mellitusGinger extract(i) Exhibited strong antioxidant activitiesOboh et al. [108]

Cardiovascular diseaseGinger extract(i) Induced the relaxation of coronary arteries
(ii) Increased vasoprotection through the suppression of the cyclooxygenase pathway and nitric oxide synthase
Wu et al. [116]