Table 2: Effect of ginger on degenerative disease (in vivo studies).

Related DiseaseConstituentEffectsReferences

Alzheimer’s diseaseGinger root extract(i) Improved learning and memory
(ii) Increased the number of Nissl bodies and neurons
(iii) Increased the activation of SOD and CAT
(iv) Decreased the levels of MDA, NF-κB, and interleukin-1 (IL-1)
Zeng et al. [103]
Aqueous ginger infusion(i) Improved the activity and level of acetylcholine
(ii) Improved T-maze test results and reduced acetylcholinesterase activity
(iii) Induced the disappearance of amyloid plaques
Karam et al. [104]

Parkinson’s disease6-Shogaol(i) Reduced astrogliosis and microgliosis in the brain
(ii) Enhanced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) level and synaptic molecules
(iii) Inhibited the inflammatory response
Moon et al. [105]
6-Shogaol(i) Improved the formation of synapses in the brain
(ii) Inhibited components of the inflammatory pathway such as TNF-α, NO, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)
Park et al. [106]

Type 2 diabetes mellitusFresh ginger sample(i) Exhibited inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase
(ii) Inhibited ACE activity
Akinyemi et al. [109]

Cardiovascular diseaseGinger extract(i) Reduced infarct size
(ii) Reduced total cholesterol serum
Rouhi-Boroujeni et al. [113]
Ethanolic ginger extract(i) Decreased the development of atherosclerotic lesions
(ii) Reduced plasma levels, LDL cholesterol levels, LDL atherogenic modifications, and the oxidative response of macrophages
Fuhrman et al. [114]
6-Gingerol(i) Reduced atherosclerotic lesions in arteries
(ii) Reversed the expression of inflammatory cytokines and lipids
Wang et al. [115]
Dried ginger powder(i) Decreased lipid levels and blood pressureSanghal et al. [117]
Aqueous ginger extract(i) Inhibited ACE activity
(ii) Prevented lipid peroxidation in the heart
Akinyemi et al. [83]
Fresh ginger sample(i) Inhibited ACE activityAkinyemi et al. [109]