Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Mistletoe and Immunomodulation: Insights and Implications for Anticancer Therapies

Table 1

Immunological activities of applied VA extracts.

VA-mediated activitiesStudy typeReferences

Increase of leukocytes, eosinophils, and granulocytesRCT, placebo-controlled trial [9, 10]

Induction of specific antibodies against VA constituentsRCT [11]

Increase of secretion of cytokinesClinical study[12]

Increase of lymphocytesClinical study [13]

Increase of activity of natural killer (NK) cellsClinical studies [1315]

Enforcement of NK-cell mediated lysis of glioblastomasPreclinical study [16]

Increase of neutrophils and increase of granulocyte activityClinical study [15]

Increase of activity of NK cellsPreclinical study [17]

Enhancement of cellular and humoral immune responsePreclinical study [18]

Increase of the activities of NK cells during surgeryClinical studies, RCT [1921]

Enhancement of dendritic cell maturationPreclinical study [22]

Abrogation of tumor-induced immunosuppression of dendritic cellsPreclinical study [23]

NK: natural killer; RCT: randomized clinical trial; VA: Viscum album L.

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