Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2019 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

C-Phycocyanin Alleviates Bladder Inflammation and Dysfunction in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in a Mouse Model by Inhibiting COX-2 and EP4

Figure 2

C-PC’s influence on CYP-induced cystitis. (a) Representative photos of the VSOP. The number of urinary spots in the C-PC group was significantly decreased compared with CYP group. p<0.01. Scale bar 1 cm. (b) HE staining of the bladder. CYP induced severe bladder inflammation, and C-PC attenuated this effect. In normal bladder, the urothelium (arrow) was intact, and there was no edema within the lamina propria. Hemorrhage (asterisk) was not observed, and few leukocytes (triangle) infiltrated the blood vessels. Most of the epithelium layer was exfoliated in CYP group, and the lamina propria became thicker. Massive hemorrhage and leukocyte infiltration could be observed in the lamina propria and smooth muscles. In C-PC group the lamina propria was thinner and hemorrhage and leukocyte infiltration were more localized. Scale bar 100 μm in all panels.

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