Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2020 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Medicinal Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities of Quercus Species

Table 3

Biological activities of some compounds from Quercus species.

NoCompound nameBiological activityDescriptionReference

1PolydatinDermatological disordersShowed potent tyrosinase inhibition compared to the positive control, kojic acid, with an IC50 value of 4.05 ± 0.30 µg/mL[83]
2(-)-8-ChlorocatechinAntidiabeticThe most potent isolate, also more potent than the positive control, acarbose, with an IC50 value of 43.60 ± 0.67 µg/mL[83]
3β-Sitosterol-D-glucosideShowed moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase
4TilirosideAntidiabeticHighest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 28.36 ± 0.11 mmol/L[86, 91]
5EpicatechinAntioxidantHigher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 22.55 ± 2.23 mmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of 28.08 ± 2.39 mmol/L[86]
6A-3-O-Galloyloleanolic acid-23-acetoxy-3-O-galloyloleanolic acid
B-3-Acetoxy-23-O-galloyloleanolic acid
C-3-O-Galloylursolic acid
AntidiabeticMost of the compounds showed strong inhibitory effects on PTP1B and α-glucosidase, their IC50 values were about 6-fold to 20-fold lower than positive control[49]
7Quercetin-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranosideAntidiabeticIncreased the survival of pancreatic beta cells by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione in MIN6 cells damaged by H2O2. The preliminary mechanism by which the compound protects pancreatic beta cells was through the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 HO-1 pathway[87]
8BetulinAnticancerTreatment with betulin increases expression of the caspase family (i.e., caspase-3, -6, and -9), proapoptotic genes (BAX and BAK), and inhibiting antiapoptotic genes (BCL-2L1 and p53) and could also regulate metastasis by inhibiting MMP-2/-[29]
9Roburgenic acidCytotoxicityRoburgenic acid was the most active compound (IC50 = 19.7 μM) reaching a comparable value to those of positive controls[90]
103-O-Galloyloleanolic acidAntihepatic fibrosis and antioxidantUpregulated the expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in t-HSC/Cl-6 cells[49]
11A-23-O-Galloyl-2α,3β,19α-trihydroxyurs-12-en- 28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside
B-3-O-Galloyl-2α,19α,23 trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside
C-3,23-O-Butylidene 2α,3β,19α,23 tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside
D-2α,3β,23-Trihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 28- O-β-D-glucopyranoside
AntineuroinflammatoryThe compounds reduce dose dependently the expression levels of proinflammatory mediator iNOS and reduce the COX-2 expression induced by LPS in BV-2 cells[45]
12A-3,23-O-Methyl butyrate 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid -d glucopyranosyl ester
B-3,23-O-Methyl butyrate-2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid -d-glucopyranosyl ester
C-23-Acetoxy-2,3,19 trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid
Anti-inflammatoryThe three compounds showed pronounced anti-inflammatory activities compared to positive control indomethacin (IC50 (µM): 8.2 ± 0.6, 12.8 ± 0.8, 19.1 ± 6.1, and 47.4 ± 4.5, respectively) and higher activity against proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8)[44]
13A-(-)-Epicatechin
B-Procyanidin B3
C-Procyanidin B4
Anti-inflammatoryThe three compounds showed dose-dependent inhibitory activities on gene expression of COX-2 and IL-1β[80]

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