Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Effect of Foot Reflexology Intervention on Depression, Anxiety, and Sleep Quality in Adults: A Meta-Analysis and Metaregression of Randomized Controlled Trials

Table 2

Characteristics of foot reflexology programs and outcomes assessment of studies included in meta-analysis.

Authors, yearFrequency (sessions/week)Session length (mins/session)Duration (weeks/study)Number of sessions/study total length/studySafety (adverse events)Lasting effects and durationAdherence rate (%)

Valizadeh et al., 2015120 (total 20 min, 10 min for each foot)66 (2 hours)Not reportedNot reported23/23 = 100%
Li et al., 2011530 (total 30 min, 15 min for each foot)15 (2.5 hours)Not reportedNot reported32/34 = 94%
Bakir et al., 2018160 (total 60 min, 30 min for each foot)66 (6 hours)Not reportedNot reported30/31 = 96%
Unal et al., 2016230 (total 30 min, 15 min for each foot)48 (4 hours)Not reportedNot reported35/35 = 100%
Zengin et al., 2018230 (total 30 min, 15 min for each foot)816 (8 hours)Not reportedNot reported84/88 = 95%
Rambod et al., 2019530 (total 30 min, 15 min for each foot)15 (2.5 hours)No side effectNot reported36/36 = 100%
Malekshahi et al., 2018310 (totally 10 min, 5 min for each foot)412 (2 hours)Not reportedNot reported40/40 = 100%
Oshvandi et al., 2014220 min (totally 20 min, 10 min for each foot)12 (0.66 hours)Not reportedNot reported30/30 = 100%
Samarehfekri et al., 2020330 min (totally 30 min, 15 min for each foot)13 (1.5 hours)No side effect1 week after intervention25/26 = 96%
Toygar et al., 2020330 min (totally 30 min, 15 min for each foot)13 (1.5 hours)Not reportedNot reported33/33 = 100%
Bahrami et al., 2019120 min (totally 20 min, 10 min for each foot)11 (0.33 hours)No side effectNot reported45/45 = 100%
Noh et al., 2019330 min (totally 30 min, 15 min for each foot)618 (9 hours)Not reportedNot reported32/33 = 96%
Mahdavipour et al., 2019230 min (totally 30 min, 15 min for each foot)612 (6 hours)Not reported2 months after intervention45/50 = 90%
Soheili et al., 2017240 min (totally 40 min, 20 min for each foot)48 (5.33 hours)Not reportedNot reported25/25 = 100%
Vardanjani et al., 2013130 min11 (0.5 hours)Not reportedNot reported50/50 = 100%
Bagheri-nesami et al., 2014420 min (totally 20 min, 20 min for left foot)14 (1.33 hours)Not reportedNot reported40/40 = 100%
Khaledifar et al., 2017130 min (totally 30 min, 15 min for each foot)11 (0.5 hours)Not reportedNot reported25/25 = 100%
Saatsaz et al., 20161-11 (—)Not reported90 min after foot massage52/52 = 100%
Pasyar et al., 2018110 (total 10 min, 5 min for each foot)11 (0.16 hours)Not reported2 hours after foot massage33/33 = 100%
Koras et al., 2019140 (total 40 min, 20 min for each foot)11 (0.66 hour)Not reported90 min after foot massage85/85 = 100%
Eguchi et al., 2016345 min412 (9 hours)No side effectNot reported27/27 = 100%
Ozturk et al., 2018320 (total 20 min, 10 min for each foot)13 (1 hour)Not reportedNot reported32/32 = 100%
Ramezanibadr et al., 2018120 min11 (0.33 hour)Not reported1 hour after foot reflexology50/50 = 100%
Shahsavari et al., 2017130 min11 (0.5 hour)Not reportedNot reported40/40 = 100%
Abbaszadeh et al., 2018430 (total 30 min, 15 min for each foot)14 (2 hours)Not reportedNot reported40/40 = 100%
Levy et al., 2020130 (total 30 min)11 (0.5 hour)No side effectNot reported99/99 = 100%

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