Review Article

Biochemistry, Safety, Pharmacological Activities, and Clinical Applications of Turmeric: A Mechanistic Review

Figure 1

A schematic diagram representing turmeric’s medicinal attributes regarding some of the most important mechanisms. NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; Nrf2: nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; SOD: superoxide dismutase; NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells; FtsZ: filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z; GSH: glutathione; NOS: nitric oxide synthase; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme.