Hirudo Lyophilized Powder Ameliorates Renal Injury in Diabetic Rats by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Effects of Hirudo lyophilized powder on oxidative stress parameters and NOX4 protein in rat renal tissues. The SL, SM, and SH group rats were dosed by oral gavage once daily for 16 weeks with Hirudo lyophilized powder. The C and DM group rats were administered the same volume of vehicle used to prepare the test medications. (a) The levels of MDA and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in each group rats. Data are presented as means ± SD (n = 7 in DM and SL groups, n = 8 in the other groups). (b) The protein expression and quantitative analysis of NOX4 in each group rats. Data are presented as means ± SD (n = 3). < 0.01 vs. C group; # < 0.05 and ## < 0.01 vs. DM group.