Hirudo Lyophilized Powder Ameliorates Renal Injury in Diabetic Rats by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Effects of Hirudo lyophilized powder on the inflammatory cytokine levels and macrophage infiltration in rat renal tissues. The SL, SM, and SH group rats were dosed by oral gavage once daily for 16 weeks with Hirudo lyophilized powder. The C and DM group rats were administered the same volume of vehicle used to prepare the test medications. (a) The mRNA levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, and TNF-α in each group rats. Data are presented as means ± SD (n = 3). (b, c) Immunofluorescence staining for CD68 and iNOS in the renal tissues of each group rats; scale bar, 100 m. (d, e) The fluorescence intensity of CD68 and iNOS in each group rats. Data are presented as means ± SD. < 0.01 vs. C group; # < 0.05 and ## < 0.01 vs. DM group.