Hirudo Lyophilized Powder Ameliorates Renal Injury in Diabetic Rats by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Effects of Hirudo lyophilized powder on the TGF-β1 and ECM proteins in rat renal tissues. The SL, SM, and SH group rats were dosed by oral gavage once daily for 16 weeks with Hirudo lyophilized powder. The C and DM group rats were administered the same volume of vehicle used to prepare the test medications. (a, b) The protein expressions and quantitative analysis of TGF-β1, collagen IV, and FN in each group rats. Data are presented as means ± SD (n = 3). (c, d) The immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative analysis of collagen III and FN in the renal tissues of each group rats; scale bar, 50 m. Data are presented as means ± SD. < 0.01 vs. C group; # < 0.05 and ## < 0.01 vs. DM group.