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D-Dimer Combined with Fibrinogen Predicts the Risk of Venous Thrombosis in Fracture Patients
Objective. While D-dimer can successfully diagnose venous thrombosis due to its excellent negative predictive value (NPV), it cannot be used to detect venous thromboembolism (VTE) because of its low positive predictive value (PPV). This study aims to investigate if a combination of using D-dimer and fibrinogen can improve PPV in the VTE diagnosis. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed various data including D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, ultrasound, and others collected from 10775 traumatic fracture patients and categorized them into two groups of VTE and non-VTE. By comparing the difference between the two groups, we employ multiple logistic regression to find risk factors that are useful to detect VTE. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic yield of using fibrinogen, D-dimer, and their combination, respectively. Also, these data were classified into quartiles by patient age. We perform the same analysis on the quartiles and find if the patient’s age has an impact on diagnosing VTE. Results. The univariate analysis demonstrated that five factors of age, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significant to predict VTE. ROC showed that D-dimer was more useful than fibrinogen for the diagnosis of VTE, while the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.7296 for D-dimer and 0.5209 for fibrinogen. The cutoff point of D-dimer and fibrinogen was 424.89 ng/ml and 3.543 g/L, respectively. The specificity of fibrinogen was 0.777 which was better than D-dimer, while the sensitivity of fibrinogen was lower than that of D-dimer. Both PPV and NPV were similar in D-dimer and fibrinogen. The PPV of combining D-dimer and fibrinogen in ages Q3 (60 < age ≤ 70) and Q4 (age > 70) was better than using either D-dimer or fibrinogen. Conclusions. Fibrinogen is a promising strategy for the diagnosis of subclinical VTE and postoperative VTE. In particular, a combination of D-dimer and fibrinogen can improve the PPV to successfully diagnose VTE in traumatic fracture patients who are more than 60 years old. Levels of Evidence. This assay is a diagnostic test at level II.
Early and Ultraearly Administration of Tranexamic Acid in Traumatic Brain Injury: Our 8-Year-Long Clinical Experience
Introduction. The most important result of head trauma, which can develop with a blunt or penetrating mechanism, is traumatic brain injury. Tranexamic acid (TXA) can be used safely in multiple trauma. Recent studies showed that TXA can be useful in management of intracerebral hemorrhage, especially in reducing the amount of bleeding. The TXA given in the first 3 hours has been shown to reduce mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid used in patients with traumatic brain injury. Method. Patients with trauma in the emergency room between January 2012 and January 2020 were screened in this retrospective study. The inclusion criteria were being over the age of 18 years, tranexamic acid administration in the emergency department, and traumatic brain injury on brain computerized tomography (CT) and control CT imaging after 6 hours. Results. The number of study patients was 51. The median score of GCS was 12.00 (8.00–15.00). Subdural hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage were the most common findings on brain CT scans. In the group TXA treatment for less than 1 hour, the arrival MAP was low and the pulse was high ( and , respectively). All the patients were admitted with multiple trauma. None of the 51 patients had thrombotic complications and died due to head injury. Conclusion. TXA appears to be a safe drug with few side effects in the short term in head injuries. According to our experience, it comes to mind earlier in multiple trauma, especially in head trauma with pelvic trauma.
Reasons for Undesirable Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with Appendicitis: The Experience of a Tertiary Center
Background. Although laparoscopic appendectomy increases its popularity today, the answer to the question of whether to perform open or laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy is appropriate in many studies, and the choice of surgery depends on the surgeon. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the variables that affect undesirable pregnancy outcomes that occur as a result of appendicitis during pregnancy. Methods. Seventy-eight pregnant patients with acute appendicitis who underwent laparoscopic or open technique intervention enrolled in this retrospective study. In addition to the demographic structure of the patients, surgical technique, the number of pregnancies, multiple pregnancy status, surgical pathologies, laboratory values, radiological imaging methods, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. The severity of appendicitis was classified according to the pathology results. The patients were divided into two groups according to the outcomes of their pregnancy. Preterm delivery and abortion involved in the study as a single complication section. Results. The mean age of the pregnant patients was 28.6 ± 5. Of the 78 pregnant women with appendicitis, 47.4% had their first pregnancy, 37.2% had their second pregnancy, and 15.4% had 3 or more pregnancies. The preterm delivery and abortus were 19.5% in the open appendectomy (OA) group and 16.2% in the laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) group. No statistically significant difference was detected in this group in terms of appendicitis pathology triggering preterm delivery or abortion ( 0.075). When white blood count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated by laboratory findings, CRP was found to be statistically significantly higher in patients with preterm birth ( 0.042). Conclusion. Consequently, acute appendicitis may cause serious intra-abdominal infection and inflammation in addition to the complexity of the diagnosis due to the nature of pregnancy, as well as undesired pregnancy outcomes with the surgical technique, or independently with other variables.
Appendix Neuroendocrine Tumor: Retrospective Analysis of 4026 Appendectomy Patients in a Single Center
Background/Aim. Appendix tumors are mostly incidentally identified in patients who were operated with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. They are detected in approximately 1% of appendectomy specimens. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) account for over 50% of appendix neoplasms. NETs appearing in the appendix can cause carcinoid syndrome. In our study, we aimed to retrospectively examine the clinical features of patients who underwent appendectomy with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and diagnosed with appendix NET in the postoperative period. Materials/Methods. The records of 4026 patients who were operated with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis between January 2008 and January 2020 at the Department of General Surgery at the Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical findings, demographic data, surgical findings, and results of the patients with appendix NET, as a result of histopathology, were examined in detail. Results. 16 of 4026 patients were reported as NET. Nine of the patients were male, and seven were female. The average age was 33 (19–49). Any of the patients had no signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. All tumors were located at the tip of the appendix, and the mean tumor diameter was 0.85 cm (0.3–2.5 cm). As a result of pathology, one patient had mesoappendix and one patient had serosa invasion. Right hemicolectomy was applied to both patients. In other patients, meso, serosa, and lymphatic invasion were not detected. Tumor size was 2.5 cm in one of the patients, 1.5 cm in one, and 1.4 cm in the other, and the others were below 1 cm. In the postoperative follow-up, all the patients were discharged on average 2.71 (2–6 days) days without any complications. Conclusion. Appendix NETs are mostly asymptomatic and localized in a distal third of the appendix. Symptoms are mostly related to tumor size and distant metastases. Clinical behavior and prognosis can best be predicted by tumor size. Complementary hemicolectomy is recommended for tumors larger than 2 cm and tumors smaller than 1 to 2 cm, such as mesoappendix invasion, positive or uncertain surgical margin, high proliferative rate, and angioinvasion. For tumors whose diameter is less than 1 cm, simple appendectomy alone is sufficient.
CPR Compression Rotation Every One Minute Versus Two Minutes: A Randomized Cross-Over Manikin Study
Background. The current basic life support guidelines recommend two-minute shifts for providing chest compressions when two rescuers are performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, various studies have found that rescuer fatigue can occur within one minute, coupled with a decay in the quality of chest compressions. Our aim was to compare chest compression quality metrics and rescuer fatigue between alternating rescuers in performing one- and two-minute chest compressions. Methods. This prospective randomized cross-over study was conducted at Songklanagarind Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand. We enrolled sixth-year medical students and residents and randomly grouped them into pairs to perform 8 minutes of chest compression, utilizing both the one-minute and two-minute scenarios on a manikin. The primary end points were chest compression depth and rate. The secondary end points included rescuers’ fatigue, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Results. One hundred four participants were recruited. Compared with participants in the two-minute group, participants in the one-minute group had significantly higher mean (standard deviation, SD) compression depth (mm) (45.8 (7.2) vs. 44.5 (7.1), ) but there was no difference in the mean (SD) rate (compressions per min) (116.1 (12.5) vs. 117.8 (12.4), ), respectively. The rescuers in the one-minute group had significantly less fatigue () and change in respiratory rate (), but there was no difference in the change of heart rate () between the two groups. Conclusion. There were a significantly higher compression depth and lower rescuer fatigue in the 1-minute chest compression group compared with the 2-minute group. This trial is registered with TCTR20170823001.
Clinical Difference between Acute Appendicitis and Acute Right-Sided Colonic Diverticulitis
Background. Clinical presentations of acute appendicitis (AA) and acute right-sided colonic diverticulitis (ARCD) are similar. However, the usual treatment for each disease differs between surgical and conservative management. The aim of this study was to identify clinical differences between AA and ARCD. Method. We performed a single-center retrospective study on adult patients, with uncomplicated AA and ARCD confirmed by computed tomography, who visited an emergency department between March 2018 and August 2019. Clinical variables including past medical history, presented symptoms and signs, and laboratory findings were compared between the two groups. A logistic regression analysis was subsequently performed to differentiate ARCD from AA based on results of univariate analyses. Results. A total of 212 (79.1%) and 56 (20.9%) patients were enrolled in AA and ARSD groups, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a past history of diverticulitis [OR: 102.679 (95% CI: 9.964–1058.055), ] was associated with ARCD, while ketonuria [OR: 2.907 (95% CI: 1.091–7.745), ], anorexia [OR: 21.544 (95% CI: 3.905–118.868), ], and neutrophilia [OR: 3.406 (95% CI: 1.243–9.336), ] were associated with AA. Conclusion. Anorexia, neutrophilia, and ketonuria were predictors of AA while a history of diverticulitis was a predictor of ARCD.