Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Emergency Medicine International
Volume 2012, Article ID 760623, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/760623
Review Article

Care of the Critically Ill Emergency Department Patient with Acute Kidney Injury

Department of Critical Care, King’s Health Partners, Guy’s & St Thomas’ Foundation Trust, King’s College London, London SE1 7EH, UK

Received 9 August 2011; Accepted 14 October 2011

Academic Editor: Peter DeBlieux

Copyright © 2012 Jennifer Joslin and Marlies Ostermann. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. M. Bagshaw, C. George, and R. Bellomo, “Changes in the incidence and outcome for early acute kidney injury in a cohort of Australian intensive care units,” Critical Care, vol. 11, article R68, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  2. M. Ostermann and R. Chang, “Correlation between the AKI classification and outcome,” Critical Care, vol. 12, no. 6, aricle R144, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. http://www.kdigo.org/.
  4. G. M. Chertow, E. Burdick, M. Honour, J. V. Bonventre, and D. W. Bates, “Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 3365–3370, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. S. G. Coca, B. Yusuf, M. G. Shlipak, A. X. Garg, and C. R. Parikh, “Long-term risk of mortality and other adverse outcomes after acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 961–973, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. J. P. Lafrance and D. R. Miller, “Acute kidney injury associates with increased long-term mortality,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 345–352, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. R. Wald, R. R. Quinn, J. Luo et al., “Chronic dialysis and death among survivors of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 11, pp. 1179–1185, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. L. J. Lo, A. S. Go, G. M. Chertow et al., “Dialysis-requiring acute renal failure increases the risk of progressive chronic kidney disease,” Kidney International, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 893–899, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. C. V. Thakar, J. P. Yared, S. Worley, K. Cotman, and E. P. Paganini, “Renal dysfunction and serious infections after open-heart surgery,” Kidney International, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 239–246, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. “Adding Insult to Injury: a review of patients who died with a primary diagnosis of acute kidney injury (Acute Renal Failure),” The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcomes and Death—Adding Insult to Injury, 2009, http://www.ncepod.org.uk/.
  11. R. Bellomo, C. Ronco, J. A. Kellum, R. L. Mehta, and P. Palevsky, “Acute renal failure—definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group,” Critical Care, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. R204–R212, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. L. Mehta, J. A. Kellum, S. V. Shah et al., “Acute kidney injury network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury,” Critical Care, vol. 11, article R31, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. A. B. Groeneveld, R. J. Navickis, and M. M. Wilkes, “Update on the comparative safety of colloids: a systematic review of clinical studies,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 253, pp. 470–483, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. C. J. Wiedermann, S. Dunzendorfer, L. U. Gaioni, F. Zaraca, and M. Joannidis, “Hyperoncotic colloids and acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis of randomized trials,” Critical Care, vol. 14, p. R191, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. M. Joannidis, W. Druml, L. G. Forni et al., “Prevention of acute kidney injury and protection of renal function in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 392–411, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. F. M. Brunkhorst, C. Engel, F. Bloos et al., “Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 2, pp. 125–139, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. J. Bouchard, S. B. Soroko, G. M. Chertow et al., “Fluid accumulation, survival and recovery of kidney function in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury,” Kidney International, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 422–427, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. J. R. Prowle and R. Bellomo, “Fluid administration and the kidney,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 332–336, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. A. D. Nagdev, R. C. Merchant, A. Tirado-Gonzalez, C. A. Sisson, and M. C. Murphy, “Emergency department bedside ultrasonographic measurement of the caval index for noninvasive determination of low central venous pressure,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 290–295, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. A. J. Weekes, H. M. Tassone, A. Babcock et al., “Comparison of serial qualitative and quantitative assessments of caval index and left ventricular systolic function during early fluid resuscitation of hypotensive emergency department patients,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 912–921, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. J. Albanèse, M. Leone, F. Garnier, A. Bourgoin, F. Antonini, and C. Martin, “Renal effects of norepinephrine in septic and nonseptic patients,” Chest, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 534–539, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. R. Bellomo and D. Di Giantomasso, “Noradrenaline and the kidney: friends or foes?” Critical Care, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 294–298, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. L. Holmes and K. R. Walley, “Bad medicine: low-dose dopamine in the ICU,” Chest, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 1266–1275, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. O. Friedrich, N. Adhikari, M. S. Herridge, and J. Beyene, “Meta-analysis: low-dose dopamine increases urine output but does not prevent renal dysfunction or death,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 142, no. 7, pp. 510–524, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. M. Ho and D. J. Sheridan, “Meta-analysis of frusemide to prevent or treat acute renal failure,” British Medical Journal, vol. 333, no. 7565, pp. 420–423, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. S. M. Bagshaw, A. Delaney, M. Haase, W. A. Ghali, and R. Bellomo, “Loop diuretics in the management of acute renal failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Critical Care and Resuscitation, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 60–68, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Sampath, J. L. Moran, P. L. Graham, S. Rockliff, A. D. Bersten, and K. R. Abrams, “The efficacy of loop diuretics in acute renal failure: assessment using Bayesian evidence synthesis techniques,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2516–2524, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. H. J. Van Der Voort, E. C. Boerma, M. Koopmans et al., “Furosemide does not improve renal recovery after hemofiltration for acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a double blind randomized controlled trial,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 533–538, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. S. A. Olenchock Jr., P. H. U. Lee, T. Yehoshua, S. A. Murphy, J. Symes, and G. Tolis, “Impact of aprotinin on adverse clinical outcomes and mortality up to 12 years in a registry of 3,337 patients,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 560–567, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. Z. H. Endre, R. J. Walker, J. W. Pickering et al., “Early intervention with erythropoietin does not affect the outcome of acute kidney injury (the EARLYARF trial).,” Kidney International, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1020–1030, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. S. M. Bagshaw, R. Bellomo, P. Devarajan et al., “Review article: acute kidney injury in critical illness,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 985–998, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. M. S. Sever, R. Vanholder, and N. Lameire, “Management of crush-related injuries after disasters,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 10, pp. 1052–1063, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. O. S. Better, I. Rubinstein, J. M. Winaver, and J. P. Knochel, “Mannitol therapy revisited (1940–1997),” Kidney International, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 886–894, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Brochard, F. Abroug, M. Brenner et al., “An official ATS/ERS/ESICM/SCCM/SRLF statement: prevention and management of acute renal failure in the ICU patient,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 181, no. 10, pp. 1128–1155, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  35. A. Zagler, M. Azadpour, C. Mercado, and C. H. Hennekens, “N-Acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized trials,” American Heart Journal, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 140–145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. M. H. Duong, T. A. MacKenzie, and D. J. Malenka, “N-acetylcysteine prophylaxis significantly reduces the risk of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy: comprehensive meta-analysis,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 471–479, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. N. Pannu, B. Manns, H. Lee, and M. Tonelli, “Systematic review of the impact of N-acetylcysteine on contrast nephropathy,” Kidney International, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1366–1374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. A. Alonso, J. Lau, B. L. Jaber, A. Weintraub, and M. J. Sarnak, “Prevention of radiocontrast nephropathy with N-acetylcysteine in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. W. Murphy, B. J. Barrett, and P. S. Parfrey, “Contrast nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 177–182, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. A. Mahoney, W. A. Smith, D. S. Lo, K. Tsoi, M. Tonelli, and C. M. Clase, “Emergency interventions for hyperkalaemia,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, article CD003235, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. C. Fry and K. Farrington, “Management of acute renal failure,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 82, no. 964, pp. 106–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. J. A. Kraut and N. E. Madias, “Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management,” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 274–285, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. M. Haase, R. Bellomo, and A. Haase-Fielitz, “Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 526–532, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. S. S. Soni, C. Ronco, N. Katz, and D. N. Cruz, “Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury: the promise of novel biomarkers,” Blood Purification, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 165–174, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. T. L. Nickolas, M. J. O'Rourke, J. Yang et al., “Sensitivity and specificity of a single emergency department measurement of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for diagnosing acute kidney injury,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 148, no. 11, pp. 810–819, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus