Research Article

Urinary Tract Infections due to Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a Chicago Emergency Department

Table 4

Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae-associated urinary tract infections.

Risk factorsUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)

Age1.02 (1.01–1.04)<0.0011.01 (1.00–1.02)0.14
Male gender1.80 (1.03–3.17)<0.0010.84 (0.41–1.69)0.62
Diabetes mellitus1.99 (1.16–3.42)0.011.40 (0.75–2.63)0.29
Obstructive uropathy3.64 (2.02–6.56)<0.0012.22 (1.04–4.78)0.04
Prior urinary tract infection3.40 (2.06–5.60)<0.0011.73 (0.97–3.08)0.06
Healthcare-associated risksa4.44 (2.68–7.32)<0.0012.32 (1.23–4.37)0.009
Prior penicillin use within 3 months2.51 (1.15–5.46)0.020.66 (0.25–1.71)0.39
Prior cephalosporin use within 3 months2.40 (1.17–4.92)0.010.78 (0.32–1.89)0.59
Prior fluoroquinolone use within 3 months6.81 (3.65–12.72)<0.0013.64 (1.74–7.64)0.001
Prior TMP-SMX use within 3 months3.61 (1.38–9.44)0.0061.16 (0.35–3.84)0.81

aDefined as presence of chronic indwelling urinary catheters, healthcare exposure including hospital stay for at least 48 hours, nursing home or long-term care facility residence, regular hemodialysis clinic visits or urological procedures within the past 3 months.
aOR: adjusted odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; OR: odds ratio; TMP-SMX: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.