Table 3: The estimated costs for emergency ambulance services (Units: frequency, USD).

ItemGroupNMeanSDF- or χ2p-value

Field-to-hospital ambulance servicePatients1926.6320.1321.5370.001××
Policemen2037.0033.73
Hospital staff6360.4031.00
Ambulance personnel3054.5027.05

Hospital-to-hospital ambulance servicePatients1931.5324.8034.7030.001××
Policemen2049.5025.64
Hospital staff6376.8323.27
Ambulance personnel3166.6132.80

Home-visiting medical servicePatients195.322.9673.2130.001××
Policemen2035.1032.95
Hospital staff6360.6312.30
Ambulance personnel3186.7721.66

<0.05, ××p<0.001.
Data are frequency (rate) and the mean± S.D. P values are for Χ2, t test as appropriate.