Emergency Medicine International / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Cognitive Impairment among Cardiac Arrest Survivors in the ICU: A Retrospective Study

Table 1

Patient characteristics and initial MMSE scores in total participants (n = 92).

MMSE ≥ 24 (n = 28)MMSE < 24 (n = 64)

Demographics
 Male20 (71.4)43 (67.2)0.687
 Age, years40.6 ± 13.048.5 ± 15.30.020
Comorbidities
 CAD3 (10.7)7 (10.9)0.975
 CHF1 (3.6)1 (1.6)0.543
 Arrhythmia0 (0.0)3 (4.7)0.244
 Hypertension4 (14.3)13 (20.3)0.493
 Diabetes mellitus0 (0.0)5 (7.8)0.128
 Malignancy0 (0.0)1 (1.6)0.506
OHCA24 (85.7)56 (87.5)0.815
Cardiac cause25 (89.3)56 (87.5)0.808
Shockable rhythm22 (78.3)44 (68.8)0.336
Witnessed25 (89.3)54 (84.4)0.534
Bystander CPR21 (75.0)40 (62.5)0.243
Time to ROSC, min19.6 ± 11.822.3 ± 14.80.396
Midazolam dose, mg271.1 (184.5–342.9)222.8 (162.6–319.1)0.242
Time to obey, day3.0 (2.3–3.0)3.0 (3.0–3.0)0.637
Time to exam, day4.0 (3.0–6.5)4.0 (3.0–5.0)0.449
Time interval from last midazolam to exam, day1.0 (0.0–3.8)1.0 (0.0–2.0)0.751
LOS, day11.5 (9.0–17.0)14.5 (9.0–21.8)0.377
MMSE score25.5 (24.0–28.0)18.0 (13.3–21.0)<0.001
 Orientation to time3.5 (3.0–4.0)1.5 (0.3–3.0)<0.001
 Orientation to place5.0 (4.3–5.0)4.0 (3.0–5.0)0.006
 Registration3.0 (3.0–3.0)3.0 (3.0–3.0)0.011
 Attention/calculation4.0 (3.3–5.0)1.0 (0.3–3.0)<0.001
 Recall2.0 (1.0–3.0)0.0 (0.0–1.0)<0.001
 Language/visual construction9.0 (9.0–9.0)8.0 (6.0–9.0)<0.001

Median (interquartile range); MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; OHCA, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; LOS, length of hospital stay.