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Enzyme Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 896567, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/896567
Review Article

Control of Genetically Prescribed Protein Tyrosine Kinase Activities by Environment-Linked Redox Reactions

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan

Received 25 January 2011; Revised 18 April 2011; Accepted 28 April 2011

Academic Editor: Robert Z. Qi

Copyright © 2011 Izumi Nakashima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recent observations on environment-linked control of genetically prescribed signaling systems for either cell activation or cell death have been reviewed with a focus on the regulation of activities of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The environment-linked redox reactions seem to primarily affect cell surface receptors and cell membrane lipid rafts, and they induce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. ROS thus generated might upregulate the catalytic activities of PTKs through inactivating protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate and inactivate autophosphorylated PTKs. Recent evidence has, however, demonstrated that ROS could also directly oxidize SH groups of genetically conserved specific cysteines on PTKs, sometimes producing disulfide-bonded dimers of PTK proteins, either for upregulation or downregulation of their catalytic activities. The basic role of the redox reaction/covalent bond-mediated modification of protein tertiary structure-linked noncovalent bond-oriented signaling systems in living organisms is discussed.