Analytical Solutions for Steady-State Multiwell Aquifer Tests in Rectangular Aquifers by Using Double Fourier Transform: A Case Study in the Ordos Plateau, ChinaRead the full article
Geofluids publishes research relating to the role of fluids in mineralogical, chemical, and structural evolution of the Earth’s crust.
Geofluids maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Physical Simulation of the Water-Conducting Fracture Zone of Weak Roofs in Shallow Seam Mining Based on a Self-Designed Hydromechanical Coupling Experiment System
Due to inappropriate mining practices, water-conducting fracture zones can develop in an aquifer, not only destroying the surface-water environment but also causing water inrush, even hurting or killing workers. To avoid such disasters, investigating and simulating the evolution mechanism of water-conducting fractures are becoming a research focus in mining engineering, especially regarding the organisation and development of fractures. Our work mainly involved the design of low-strength analogous materials and the simulation of fracture evolution for weak-roof problems in shallow seam mining based on a self-built experimental hydromechanical coupling system. The experimental results show that the vertical stress in the roof increases first as the working face approaches and finally decreases to near its initial value as the working face passes. The relationship between fracture depth and coal-seam excavation distance is obviously nonlinear. The leakage velocity of surface water remains stable in the early stage of excavation and increases when the fracture develops through the main aquifuge. The maximum fracture depth is 76.18 m for the Yili coal mine with weak roofs and shallow coal seams. In addition, we numerically simulated and verified the evolution patterns with the FLAC3D platform. The simulated fracture depth of the Yili coal mine agreed with the in situ borehole observation very well and was more accurate than the output of the empirical formula. Our work provides new methods and relevant data for research on the evolution of water-conducting fractures in weak roofs during shallow seam mining.
The Conformal Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of GPR Wave Propagation in Complex Geoelectric Structures
The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method adopts the most popular numerical model simulating ground penetrating radar (GPR) wave propagation in an underground structure. However, a staircase approximation method is usually adopted to simulate the curved boundary of an irregular object in the FDTD and symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (SPRK) methods. The approximate processing of rectangular mesh parameters will result in calculation errors and virtual surface waves for irregular targets of an underground structure. In this paper, we examine transverse mode (TM) electromagnetic waves with numerical models of electromagnetic wave propagation in geoelectric structures with conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) method technology in which the effective dielectric parameters are used to accurately simulate the dielectric surface and to absorb waves at the edges of the grid. The third orders of the transmission boundary are used in this paper. Additionally, three complex geocentric models of inclined layered media, spherical media, and three-layered pavement model with structural damages are set up for simulation calculations, then we carry out the actual radar wave detection in a laboratory as the fourth numerical example. Comparison of simulated reflectance waveform of FDTD, symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (SPRK), and CFDTD methods shows that at least 50% of the virtual waves can be reduced by using the proposed algorithm. Wiggle diagrams of FDTD and CFDTD methods show that much of the virtual waves have been reduced, and the radar image is clearer than before. This provides a method for the detection of complex geoelectric and layered structures in actual engineering.
The Oil-Bearing Strata of Permian Deposits of the Ashal’cha Oil Field Depending on the Content, Composition, and Thermal Effects of Organic Matter Oxidation in the Rocks
The features of the oil-bearing capacity of the productive strata of Permian deposits in the interval of 117.5-188.6 m along the section of individual wells of the Ashal’cha field of heavy superviscous oil (Tatarstan) were revealed depending on the content, composition, and thermal effects of organic matter (OM) oxidation in the rocks. It is shown that the rocks are very heterogeneous in their mineral composition and in the content of both free hydrocarbons by extraction with organic solvents and insoluble OM closely associated with the rock. The total content of OM in rocks varies from 1.72 to 9.12%. The features of group and hydrocarbon composition of extracts from rocks are revealed depending on their mineral composition and the content of organic matter in them. According to the molecular mass distribution of alkanes of normal and isoprenoid structure, extracts from rocks are differentiated according to three chemical types of oil: type A1, in which n-alkanes of composition C14 and above are present, and types A2 and B2, in which n-alkanes are destroyed to varying degrees by processes microbial destruction, which indicates a different intensity of biochemical processes in productive strata of Permian sediments. These processes lead to a decrease in the amount of OM in the rocks and an increase in the content of resins and asphaltenes in the oil extracted from them, as well as an increase in the viscosity of the oil. Using the method of differential scanning calorimetry of high pressure, it was found that the studied rock samples differ from each other in quantitative characteristics of exothermic effects in both low-temperature (LTO) 200-350°С and high-temperature (HTO) 350-600°С zones of OM oxidation. The total thermal effect of destruction processes of OM depends on the content of OM in the rocks and its composition. The research results show that when heavy oil is extracted using thermal technologies, the Permian productive strata with both low and high OM contents will be involved in the development, and the general thermal effect of the oxidation of which will contribute to increased oil recovery.
An Experimental Study on the Slippage Effects of Sandstone under Confining Pressure and Low Pore Pressure Conditions
Due to the influences of various factors, such as temperature, stress, and composition, the research regarding rock permeability has been complicated. This study examined the variation laws of sandstone specimens under changing rates of confining and pore pressures after high-temperature heat treatments. The results showed that the free water in the rock volatilized during the low-temperature heat treatments in the range of 100°C to 300°C, with the increase of the heat-treatment temperature above 500°C; the crystal water in the rock is gradually separated out; and the particles in the samples had undergone phase transformations resulting in increased permeability. According to ultrasonic wave velocity test results, the internal cracks of the samples expanded with the increases in the heat-treatment temperatures. In addition, the high-temperature heat treatments were found to improve the accuracy of the direction of the Earth’s stress when using circumferential wave velocity anisotropy methods. Under the influence of slippage effects, as the pore pressure increased, the measured permeability of the samples decreased and the slippage effect occurs in the rock samples with the permeability of 10-3 μm2~10-6 μm2. The experimental results showed that the contribution rate of the slippage effect decreases with the increase of the heat-treatment temperature of the specimen, and the contribution rates of the sandstone slippage effect were generally higher than 5%. Therefore, the impact effects on the permeability of sandstone slippage should be considered in practical engineering processes.
Case Study: In Situ Experimental Investigation on Overburden Consolidation Grouting for Columnar Jointed Basalt Dam Foundation
The dam foundation rock mass, at the Baihetan hydropower station on the Jinsha River, is mainly columnar jointed basalt, with faults and fissures developed. Considering adverse factors such as the unloading relaxation or the opening of the fissures due to excavation blasting, consolidation grouting is needed to improve the integrity of the dam foundation rock mass. According to the physical and mechanical properties of columnar jointed basalt and the continuity of construction, the effectiveness of overburden consolidation grouting is experimentally studied. The results show that this grouting technology can obviously improve the integrity and uniformity of a dam foundation rock mass and reduce the permeability of the rock mass. After grouting, the average increase in the wave velocity of the rock mass is 7.3%. The average improvement in the deformation modulus after grouting is 13.5%. After grouting, the permeability of 99% of the inspection holes in the Lugeon test section had Lugeon values of no more than 3 LU. This improvement is considerable and provides a case to engineering application.
Multivariate Statistical Analysis Reveals the Heterogeneity of Lacustrine Tight Oil Accumulation in the Middle Permian Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin, NW China
Tight oil and gas accumulation commonly has heterogeneities within the reservoir formation. This heterogeneity, however, is hard to investigate by conventional geological and (organic) geochemical tools and thus is critical and challenging to study. Here, we attempted multivariate statistical analysis to reveal the heterogeneity based on a case study in the lacustrine tight oil accumulation in the middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Jimusar sag, Junggar Basin, NW China. Clustering heat maps and multi-dimensional scaling analysis revealed the heterogeneity of tight oil accumulation. The heterogeneity is reflected by the complex relationship between the two reservoir sweet spots as well as the oil migration and accumulation vertically and spatially, rather than the previous thoughts that it is a closed system associated with proximal hydrocarbon accumulation patterns. Multiple biomarkers show that the source rocks and reservoirs have similar characteristics in the lower part of the formation, reflecting a proximal hydrocarbon accumulation pattern in the lower sweet spot (near-source accumulation, abbreviated as NA). This represents a relatively closed system. However, the upper sweet spot and the middle section mudstone sequence intervening the two sweet spots are not a completely closed system in a strict sense. These sequences can be divided into three tight oil segments, i.e., lower, middle, and upper from deep to shallow. The lower segment is sited in the lower part of the middle section mudstone sequence. The middle segment is composed of the upper part of the middle section mudstone sequence and the lower part of the upper sweet spot. The upper segment is composed of the upper part of the upper sweet spot and the overlying upper Permian Wutonggou Formation reservoirs. Oils generated in the lower segment migrated vertically to upper sweet spot reservoirs through faults/fractures, and laterally to distal reservoirs. Oils generated in the middle segment were preserved in reservoirs of the upper sweet spot. Oils in the upper segment require accumulation by vertical and lateral migration through faults/fractures. As such, the tight oil accumulation is complex in the Lucaogou Formation. From base to top, the accumulation mechanisms in the Lucaogou Formation were NA, VLMA (vertical and lateral migration and accumulation), NA and VLMA, thereby showing strong heterogeneities. Our data suggest that these processes might be typical of tight oil accumulations universally, and are important for future exploration and exploitation in the region to consider the heterogeneities rather than a closed system. The multivariate statistical analysis is an effective tool for investigating complex oil-source correlations and accumulation in petroleum basins.