Enabling FAIR Data in the Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences
As a signatory of the COPDESS Statement of Commitment, Hindawi requires authors to make the minimum data required to support the conclusions in their manuscript fully available in a suitable community repository upon submission.Read about data availability
Geofluids publishes research relating to the role of fluids in mineralogical, chemical, and structural evolution of the Earth’s crust.
Geofluids maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Model Tests on Y-Shaped Piles under Compressive and Lateral Loading in Saturated Sand
Y-shaped piles are a new type of pile whose cross-section is like the letter Y: they are often used in ground improvement for road or train subgrades in the eastern coastal region of China. To investigate the bearing behaviour of Y-shaped piles in saturated sand, a series of model tests under compressive and horizontal load for Y-shaped piles, circular pile (the same cross-sectional area of Y-shaped pile), and circular pile (the same perimeter of Y-shaped pile) were carried out. Comparative analysis was conducted on bearing capacity, axial force and side resistance distribution, load sharing ratio, bending moment, and lateral soil pressure distribution along the embedded length. The results show that the bearing capacity of a Y-shaped pile does not increase in proportion, and the shaft resistance is weakened to some extent in saturated sand; Y-shaped pile can effectively improve the compressive bearing capacity for the same amount of concrete. The lateral bearing capacity of a Y-shaped pile has directionality, and hanging a circular section into a Y-shaped section may improve the horizontal bearing capacity for the same amount concrete, but cannot give full play to the advantage of the larger side area for horizontal bearing capacity in saturated sand.
High-Precision Numerical Simulation on the Cyclic High-Pressure Water Slug Injection in a Low-Permeability Reservoir
The paper presents a novel waterflooding technique, coupling cyclic high-pressure water slug injection with an asynchronous injection and production procedure, to address the inefficient development of low-permeability oil reservoir in Shengli Oilfield, a pilot test with 5-spot well pattern. Based on the first-hand data from the pilot test, the reservoir model is established. With an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the novel waterflooding technique, different simulation schemes are employed to screen the best scheme to finely investigate the historical performance of the pilot test. The production characteristics of the pilot test are both qualitatively and quantitatively investigated. It is found that the novel waterflooding technique can provide pressure support within a short period. And the formation around the injector is significantly activated and deformed. Once passing the short stage of the small elastic deformation, the reservoir immediately goes through the dilation deformation accompanied with the opening of microfractures so that the reservoir properties are significantly improved, which leads to better reservoir performance. With the multicyclic dilation-recompaction geomechanical model, the impact of pressure cyclic evolution on the reservoir properties and performance under the novel waterflooding mode of cyclic high-pressure water slug injection is taken into consideration. The historical data of the pilot test is well matched. In the study, a high-precision simulation scheme for the novel waterflooding technique in low-permeability reservoirs is proposed, which provides significant technical support for further optimization of the pilot test and large-scale application of the novel waterflooding technique.
Investigation on Damage Characteristic and Constitutive Model of Deep Sandstone under Coupled High Temperature and Impact Loads
To investigate the coupling damage characteristics of rock after high-temperature treatment under impact load, dynamic uniaxial compression tests for deep sandstone specimen under laboratory conditions varying with high temperature (i.e., 25°C, 100°C, 300°C, 500°C, 700°C, and 900°C) and strain rate (i.e., 170 s-1, 205 s-1, and 240 s-1) were performed using splitting Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Coupling damage variable of deep sandstone was deduced based on the Lemaitre equivalent strain theory. Moreover, the damage parameters of deep sandstone were systematically determined according to the test data, and the effects of high temperature and strain rate on damage growth curves were investigated. Finally, a dynamic compound damage constitutive model, which could consider the coupling damage, was established and verified to describe the dynamic mechanical characteristic of deep sandstone. Theoretical and experimental results indicated that the simulated stress-strain curves matched the test data well and the proposed coupling damage constitutive model could reflect the high temperature-induced weakening and strain rate strengthening effect.
Experimental Investigations of Offshore Sand Production Monitoring Based on the Analysis of Vibration in Response to Weak Shocks
Sand production is a problem that is often encountered in unconventional oil and gas exploitation and that is difficult to effectively solve. Accurate online monitoring of sand production is one of the keys to ensuring the safety and long-term production of oil wells as well as efficient production throughout the life cycle of production wells. This paper proposes a method for monitoring sand production in offshore oil wells that is based on the vibration response characteristics of sand-carrying fluid flow impinging on the pipe wall. This method uses acceleration sensors to obtain the weak vibration response characteristics of sand particles impinging on the pipe wall on a two-dimensional time-frequency plane. The time-frequency parameters are further optimized, and the ability to identify weakly excited vibration signals of sand particles in the fluid stream is enhanced. The difference between the impact response of the sand particles and the impact response of the fluid flow to the pipe wall is identified, and corresponding indoor verification experiments are carried out. Under different sand contents, particle sizes, and flow rates (sand content 0-2‰, sand particle size 96-212 μm, and flow velocity 1-3 m/s), the impact response frequency of sand particles to the pipe wall exhibits good consistency. The characteristic frequency band of sand impacting the pipe wall is 30-50 kHz. A statistical method is used to establish the response law of the noise signal of the fluid. Based on this knowledge, a real-time calculation model of sand production in offshore oil wells is constructed, and the effectiveness of this model is verified. Finally, a field test is carried out with a self-developed sand production signal dynamic time-frequency response software system on 4 wells of an oil production platform in the Bohai Sea. This system can effectively distinguish sand-producing wells from non-sand-producing wells. The dynamic time-frequency response, field test results, and actual laboratory results are consistent, verifying the effectiveness of the method proposed in this paper and further providing a theory for improving the effectiveness of the sand production monitoring method under complex multiphase flow conditions. This study also provides technical guidance for the industrial application of sand production monitoring devices in offshore oil wells.
Enhanced Oil Recovery by Cyclic Injection of Wettability Alteration Agent for Tight Reservoirs
Low primary recovery factor and rapid production decline necessitates the proposal of enhanced oil recovery methods to mobilize the remaining oil resource of tight reservoirs, especially for oil-wet ones, and wettability alteration by injecting a chemical agent such as a surfactant is a promising option. A discrete-fracture-network-based mathematical model is developed with consideration of the displacement mechanisms and complicated physical-chemical phenomena during EOR by wettability alteration, and this model numerically solved by the fully implicit method. Simulation cases are conducted to investigate the production performance and key factors of cyclic injection of a surfactant. Cyclic injection can significantly improve the production of oil-wet tight reservoirs, and the ultimate recovery factor can be increased by 10 percent. The reason is that a surfactant can alter the wettability of a reservoir from oil wet to medium or even water wet, which triggers spontaneous imbibition and favors oil movement from a matrix into a fracture. Better EOR results can be achieved with decreasing oil viscosity, increasing matrix permeability, or decreasing fracture spacing. Cyclic surfactant injection is applicable to reservoirs with an oil viscosity of less than 7 mPa·s, a matrix permeability bigger than 0.01 mD, or a fracture spacing smaller than 150 m. It is favorable for the wettability alteration method by maintaining capillary pressure and reducing residual oil saturation as much as possible.
Frontier Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Research on the Application of Imbibition Techniques in High-Pressure Forced Soaking of Hydraulically Fractured Shale Oil Reservoirs
Shale reservoirs are characterized by low porosity and low permeability, and volume fracturing of horizontal wells is a key technology for the benefits development of shale oil resources. The results from laboratory and field tests show that the backflow rate of fracturing fluid is less than 50%, and the storage amount of fracturing fluid after large-scale hydraulic fracturing is positively correlated with the output of single well. The recovery of crude oil is greatly improved by means of shut-in and imbibition, therefore attracting increasing attention from researchers. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the migration mechanisms and stimulation mechanisms of horizontal well high pressure forced soaking technology in the reservoirs. However, due to the diversity of shale mineral composition and the complexity of crude oil composition, the stimulation mechanism and effect of this technology are not clear in shale reservoir. Therefore, the mechanism of enhanced oil recovery by imbibition and the movable lower limit of imbibition cannot be characterized quantitatively. It is necessary to solve fragmentation research in the full-period fluid transport mechanisms in the follow-up research.