Enabling FAIR Data in the Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences
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Numerical Simulations of Chemical-Assisted Steam Flooding in Offshore Heavy Oil Reservoirs after Water Flooding
Chemical-assisted steam flooding (CASF) is a promising method for heavy oils. However, few researches have investigated the CASF performance on offshore heavy oil reservoirs recovery after water flooding. In this study, a numerical simulation model was developed to simulate CASF processes for offshore heavy oil reservoirs after water flooding. Then, a comparison of CASF and various thermal methods was made to assess the feasibility of CASF in an offshore heavy reservoir of Bohai Bay, China. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of the gas-liquid ratio, foaming agent concentration, surfactant concentration, the size of nitrogen foam slug, the size of surfactant slug, and the number of chemical injection round on CASF performance by the developed model. The results showed that the developed numerical method can precisely simulate the CASF processes. CASF is a potential and effective method for offshore heavy oil reservoirs after water flooding. The most suitable gas-liquid ratio was around 2 : 1 under the simulation conditions. Considering the economic benefit, it is significant to optimize the CASF parameters, such as foaming agent concentration, the size of nitrogen foam slug, and the number of chemical injection round.
Study on the Water Invasion and Its Effect on the Production from Multilayer Unconsolidated Sandstone Gas Reservoirs
Water invasion is a common occurrence in multilayer unconsolidated gas reservoirs, which results in excessive water production and reduces the economic life of gas wells. However, due to multiple layers, active edge water, and strong heterogeneity, the mechanism of water invasion and its effect in the unconsolidated sandstone gas reservoir require understanding in order to improve efficiency and minimize economic cost. In this study, an experimental study on edge water invasion of the multilayer commingled production in unconsolidated sandstone gas reservoirs was conducted to understand the water invasion process along with different permeability layers. The results show that the edge water invasion in the commingling production is mainly affected by two major factors including reservoir permeability and gas production rate, which jointly control the encroaching water advance path and speed. The nonuniform invade of edge water may occur easily and water prefers to invade toward the gas well along with high permeability layers when the commingling production is in the condition of large permeability gradient and high production rate. The bypass flow will occur when there are high permeability channels between the layers, which causes water blocking to low-permeability layers and periphery reservoirs far away from gas wells. The findings of this study can help for a better understanding of water invasion and the effects of reservoir properties so as to optimize extraction conditions and predict gas productivity in unconsolidated sandstone gas reservoirs.
Fluid Inclusions and H-O-C-S-Pb Isotope Studies of the Xinmin Cu-Au-Ag Polymetallic Deposit in the Qinzhou-Hangzhou Metallogenic Belt, South China: Constraints on Fluid Origin and Evolution
Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is an important polymetallic (Cu, Mo, W, Sn, Pb, Zn, Au, and Ag) belt in South China. The Xinmin polymetallic deposit is located in the southwestern segment of this belt, which ore bodies hosted in the contact zone of granite and Lower Devonian sedimentary strata and in the structure fractured zone within the strata. Three hydrothermal stages can be distinguished: quartz+tourmaline+pyrite (early stage), tourmaline+pyrite+galena+bismuthinite+sphalerite+chalcopyrite+pyrrhotite (main stage), and quartz+calcite+dolomite (late stage). The mineralizing fluid system can be described as aqueous with medium-high salinity (2.7-50.7 wt.‰ NaCl equiv. in the main stage and 0.18-8.81 wt.‰ NaCl equiv. in the late stage) and medium-high temperature of 485°C to 205°C (main stage) and 300°C to 116°C (late stage). The trapping pressures varied from 2 MPa to 30 MPa (main stage) and 0.4 MPa to 9 MPa (late stage). The values of quartz range from 6.7‰ to 8.5‰, and the values for fluid inclusions in quartz range from -45‰ to -52‰. The calcite has C-isotopes ranging from -5.8‰ to +0.7‰ and O-isotopes from +12.7‰ to 21.4‰. H-O-C isotope data are consistent with a hydrothermal fluid derived from the Cretaceous granitoid magma. The values of sulfides are -3.3‰ to +1.9‰. Sulfides have 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 18.377 to 18.473, 207Pb/204Pb ratios of 15.606 to 16.684, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 38.613 to 38.902. The S-Pb isotope data suggest derivation of S and Pb mainly from the Cretaceous granitic magma. It is concluded that the Xinmin deposit is a medium-high temperature, medium-high salinity hydrothermal polymetallic deposit, related to the granitic magmatism and strictly controlled by the fault and shattered zones.
Formation Mechanism of Mud Volcanoes/Mud Diapirs Based on Physical Simulation
The formation of mud volcanoes/mud diapirs is directly related to oil and gas accumulation and gas-hydrate mineralization. Their eruptive activities easily cause engineering accidents and may increase the greenhouse effect by the eruption of methane gas. Many scholars have performed much research on the developmental characteristics, geochemistry, and carbon emissions of mud diapirs/mud volcanoes, but the formation mechanism of mud diapirs/mud volcanoes is still controversial. Mud diapirs and mud volcanoes are especially developed in the northern South China Sea and are accompanied by abundant oil, gas, and gas-hydrate resources. Based on the mud volcanoes/mud diapirs in the northern South China Sea, the physical simulation experiments of mud diapir/mud volcano formation and evolution under different fluid pressures and tectonic environments have been performed by loading a fluid-input system in traditional sandbox simulation equipment. The genetic mechanism of mud diapirs/mud volcanoes is revealed, and a fluid-leakage model of mud diapirs/mud volcanoes under different geological conditions is established. We believe that in an overpressured environment, the greater the thickness of the overlying strata is, the greater the pressure or power required for the upward migration of muddy fluid to penetrate the overlying strata. Tectonic activity promotes the development of mud volcanos/mud diapirs. To a certain extent, the more intense the tectonic activity is, the more significant the effect of promoting the development of mud volcanoes/mud diapirs and the larger the mud diapirs/mud volcanoes become.
Experimental Study of the Influence of Moisture Content on the Mechanical Properties and Energy Storage Characteristics of Coal
Rock burst occurs frequently as coal mining depth goes deeper, which seriously impacts the safety production of underground coal mines. Coal seam water injection is a technique commonly used to prevent and control such accidents. Moisture content is a critical factor tightly related to rock burst; however, an in-depth insight is required to discover their relationship. In this study, the influence of moisture content on the mechanical properties of coal and rock burst tendency is explored via multiple measurement techniques: uniaxial compression test, cyclic loading/unloading test, and acoustic emission (AE) test. These tests were performed on coal samples using the MTS-816 rock mechanics servo testing machine and AE system. The testing results showed that with the increase in moisture content, the peak strength and elastic modulus of each coal sample are reduced while the peak strain increases. The duration of the elastic deformation phase in the complete stress-strain curves of coal samples is shortened. As the moisture content increases, the area of hysteretic loop and elastic energy index of each coal sample are reduced, and the impact energy index is negatively correlated with the moisture content, whereas dynamic failure time is positively correlated with the moisture content, but this variation trend is gradually mitigated with the continuous increase of moisture content. The failure of the coal sample is accompanied by the sharp increase in the AE ring-down count, whose peak value lags behind the peak stress, and the ring-down count is still generated after the coal sample reached the peak stress. With the increase in moisture content, the failure mode of the coal sample is gradually inclined to tensile failure. The above test results manifested that the strength of the coal sample is weakened to some extent after holding moisture, the accumulative elastic energy is reduced in case of coal failure, and thus, coal and rock burst tendency can be alleviated. The study results can provide a theoretical reference for studying the fracture instability of moisture-bearing coal and prevention of coal and rock burst by the water injection technique.
Genetic Types and Main Control Factors of Microfractures in Tight Oil Reservoirs of Jimsar Sag
Microfractures are key for migrating and aggregating hydrocarbon source rocks and fracturing oil-gas exploitation in tight reservoirs. In this study, rock samples from the Lucaogou Formation tight reservoirs in Xinjiang, China, were studied using multidisciplinary techniques to investigate the genetic types and main control factors of microfractures. Results indicated that the Lucaogou Formation mainly developed diagenetic microfractures followed by tectonic microfractures, with slight formations of granular microfractures. These observations were used to clarify the relationship between the development of microfractures and the pore fluid content, lithology, mineral composition, and stratum thickness. A higher pore fluid content corresponded to a lower compressive strength of the rocks and a larger ring count, resulting in a higher probability of failure and microfracture formation. Tight reservoirs containing more quartz and carbonate minerals were found to develop more microfractures. Quartz grains showed fractures at the margins under stress, which increased the pore permeability of rocks. Carbonate minerals tended to form microfractures owing to corrosion. Microfracture formation mechanisms differed depending on lithology, and microfractures were found to develop most in dolomite and dolomitic siltstones and least in mudstone. Muddy rocks developed fewer tectonic fractures because they can easily absorb stress and undergo plastic deformation. Within a certain stratum thickness range, the average single-well fracture space and stratum thickness showed positive correlations. Moreover, the fracture space increased and the fracture density decreased as the stratum thickness increased. When the stratum thickness was less than 2.5 m, the fracture space increased linearly with the stratum thickness, and when the stratum thickness was greater than 2.5 m, the fracture space remained constant. This study will provide an essential scientific basis for enhancing tight oil recovery.