Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Vibrational Frequency Calculations of Species in Liquid-Liquid Phase Separated MgSO4 Solution at 543 KRead the full article
Geofluids publishes research relating to the role of fluids in mineralogical, chemical, and structural evolution of the Earth’s crust.
Geofluids maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
A Two-Dimensional Planar Fracture Network Model for Broken Rock Mass Based on Packer Test and Fractal Dimension
Broken rock masses with the complexity and concealment widely exist in nature such as underground mine, collapse column, and zone. It is extremely difficult to model fracture networks and to simulate water diffusion for broken rock masses. To explore a reasonable fracture network model for broken rock masses, a new method for modeling a two-dimensional planar fracture network model is proposed in this paper. It includes packer test, empirical relationship, fractal width description, and symmetric expansion modeling. Then, the fluid-solid coupling is used to simulate the diffusion properties of water in the two-dimensional planar fracture network model. It is found that the diffusion velocities and do not appear in the fracture widths and . It indicates that the fracture widths and in the fracture network model for broken rock mass have little impact on the diffusion velocity. Furthermore, the fracture distribution pattern in the fracture network model is an important factor affecting the diffusion velocities and . The simulation results of water diffusion in the currently proposed model are almost consistent with the actual process of the packer test. Also, the validity of the two-dimensional planar fracture network model is verified by comparing the simulation results with the existing research.
Genesis of the Early Indosinian Darongshan Granitoid in South China: Response to the Subduction of the Eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean
The Bangxi–Chenxing suture zone is an essential area from which information about the closure history of the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean can be obtained. The Darongshan granitoid, which is adjacent to this suture, lies among the widely distributed granitic rocks and few basic rocks in the southern Guangxi Province. Herein, we report the petrogeochemistry, zircon U–Pb ages, and zircon Hf isotopic data of the Darongshan pluton in this region. The LA-ICP-MS U–Pb zircon analysis indicates that the Darongshan pluton had formed at Ma. The Darongshan granites are silica-rich ( wt%, wt%) with high Na2O contents ( wt%, ), relatively high Mg (, ), and an average Fe2O3T+TiO2+MnO+MgO of 4.96. These features are similar to those of the Mg-andesitic/dioritic rock- (MA-) like tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorites (TTGs). Chemical analyses show that all rocks are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, Th, and U) and light rare earth elements, with weak negative Eu anomalies (), and Ta, Nb, and Ti depletion, with typical arc-like affinity. The zircon Hf isotopic results show zircon values ranging from -18.2 to -7.4 and the model ages 1.74–2.41 Ga. The petrogeochemistry and zircon Hf isotopic signatures indicate the magma generation of the Darongshan granitoid with fluid/melt released from the subducted slab and the fluid/melt assimilated and mixed with the mantle peridotite during ascent. Combining previous extant information on Permo–Triassic subduction/collision-related magmatism in the Bangxi–Chenxing with that of the Jinshajiang–Ailaoshan–Song Ma suture zones, the Darongshan granitoid is interpreted as a magmatic formation that was generated in an active continental margin arc environment during the subduction of the Early Indosinian eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean and the South China Block, further supporting the idea that closure occurred during the Middle–Late Triassic.
A Numerical Simulation Approach for Superheated Steam Flow during Multipoint Steam Injection in Horizontal Well
Superheated steam flow during multipoint steam injection technology has a good effect on improving the steam absorption profile of heavy oil thermal recovery wells, enhancing the production degree of horizontal section of thermal recovery wells, and enhancing oil recovery. Based on the structure of multipoint steam injection horizontal string, considering the characteristics of variable mass flow, pressure drop of steam-liquid two-phase flow, and throttling pressure difference of steam injection valve in the process of steam injection, this paper establishes the calculation model of various parameters of multipoint steam injection horizontal wellbore and calculates the distribution of steam injection rate, temperature, pressure gradient, and dryness along the section of multipoint steam injection in horizontal wellbore. The results show that the temperature and pressure decrease gradually from heel to toe, and the steam dryness decreases gradually. Considering the influence of throttle pressure difference of steam injection valve and pressure drop of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the wellbore, the traditional calculation model of steam injection thermodynamic parameters is optimized, and the optimization of wellbore structure and steam injection parameters is an effective method to achieve uniform steam injection in horizontal wells. The steam injection uniformity of horizontal wells can be effectively improved by adjusting the steam injection valve spacing and steam injection parameters. When the steam injection volume is 200 m3/d and the steam injection valve spacing is 20 m, a more stable steam injection effect can be obtained. The findings of this study can help for better understanding of improving the uniformity of steam injection and enhancing the recovery factor.
Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Water Infiltration Impact on Soil-Pile Interaction in Expansive Soil
A laboratory model of a single pile embedded in Nanyang expansive soil and subjected to water infiltration is applied in this study to examine the interaction between the expansive soil and pile foundation upon water infiltration. The soil matric suction decreases as a result of the rising soil-water content. The amount of soil ground heave reaches its peak of 10.7 mm after 200 hours of water infiltration. As matric suction decreases, pile shaft friction also declines, which causes more of the load at the pile head to be carried by the pile base resulting in more pile settlements. A new numerical simulation method is provided to simulate this issue by coupling the subsurface flow, soil deformation, and hygroscopic swelling to investigate the expansive soil-pile response upon water infiltration. From the numerical simulation model, hygroscopic strain arises as a result of elevated moisture levels resulting from the entry of water, and due to ground heave and the mobilization of lateral soil swelling, the shear stress at the interface between the soil and the pile gradually increases over time. It reaches its maximum value of 4420 Pa at upper depths around 200 hours after the infiltration. The comparison between the lab model testing data and the numerical model results demonstrates a good level of concurrence.
Anisotropy and Energy Evolution Characteristics of Shales: A Case Study of the Longmaxi Formation in Southern Sichuan Basin, China
To obtain the influence of anisotropy and energy evolution characteristics on wellbore stability, the acoustic and mechanical anisotropy characteristics of shales are studied through various experiments, including scanning electron microscopy, ultrasonic pulse transmission, and uniaxial compression experiments, with the Longmaxi Formation shale in the southern area of the Sichuan Basin as the research object. The energy evolution characteristics of the Longmaxi Formation shale under different bedding angles are analyzed. The influence of anisotropy on the wellbore stability of shale formation is discussed on this basis. The results show that the acoustic and mechanical parameters, failure mode, and energy evolution characteristics of shale have significant anisotropy. Furthermore, the P-wave and S-wave time differences decrease with an increase in bedding angle. The compressive strength and Poisson’s ratio decrease first and then increase with an increase in bedding angle. Meanwhile, the elastic modulus gradually increases with an increase in bedding angle. Rock samples with different bedding angles show diverse failure modes in mechanical tests, including splitting, shear, and shear-splitting failure. The total energy and elastic energy decrease first and then increase with an increase in bedding angle. Finally, the formation anisotropy affects the wellbore stability: the higher the formation anisotropy, the more vulnerable is the wellbore to instability.
Automatic History Matching for Adjusting Permeability Field of Fractured Basement Reservoir Simulation Model Using Seismic, Well Log, and Production Data
Developing automatic history matching (AHM) methods to replace the traditional manual history matching (MHM) approach in adjusting the permeability distribution of the reservoir simulation model has been studied by many authors. Because permeability values need to be evaluated at hundreds of thousands of grid cells in a typical reservoir simulation model, it is necessary to apply a reparameterization technique to allow the optimization algorithms to be implemented with fewer variables. In basic reparameterization techniques including zonation and pilot point methods, the calibrations are usually based solely on the production data with no systematic link to the geological and geophysical data, and therefore, the obtained permeability distribution may be not geologically consistent. Several other reparameterization techniques have attempted to preserve geological consistency by incorporating 4D seismic data; however, these techniques cannot be applied to our fractured basement reservoirs (FBRs) as they do not have 4D seismic data. Taking into account these challenges, in this study, an AHM methodology and workflow have been developed using a new reparameterization technique. This approach attempts to minimize the potential for geological nonconsistency of the calibrated results by linking the permeability to geophysical data. The proposed methodology can be applied to fields with only traditional geophysical data (3D seismic and conventional well logs). In the proposed workflow, the spatial distributions of seismic attributes and geomechanical properties were calculated and estimated from 3D seismic data and well logs, respectively. After that, a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model trained by the back-propagation algorithm of the relationship between initial permeability with seismic attributes and geomechanical properties of their grid cell values is developed. Then, the calibration of the permeability distribution is performed by adjustment of the ANN model. Modification of the ANN model is performed using the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm to calibrate transmission coefficients in the ANN model to minimize the discrepancy between the simulated results and observed data. The developed methodology is applied to calibrate the permeability distribution of a simulation model of Bach Ho FBR in Vietnam. The effectiveness of the methodology is evident by comparing the historical matches with an available manually history-matched simulation model. The application shows that the proposed methodology could be considered as a suitable practical approach for adjusting the permeability distribution for FBR reservoir simulation models.