Geofluids

Geofluids / 2017 / Article
Special Issue

Fluids, Metals, and Mineral/Ore Deposits

View this Special Issue

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2017 |Article ID 1206587 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1206587

Shunda Li, Keyong Wang, Yicun Wang, Xuebing Zhang, Hongyan Quan, "Genesis of the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb Deposit, Southern Great Xing’an Range, NE China: A Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Study", Geofluids, vol. 2017, Article ID 1206587, 18 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1206587

Genesis of the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb Deposit, Southern Great Xing’an Range, NE China: A Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Study

Academic Editor: Bin Chen
Received24 Mar 2017
Revised24 May 2017
Accepted12 Jun 2017
Published13 Jul 2017

Abstract

The Bairendaba deposit is the largest Ag-Zn-Pb deposit in Inner Mongolia. Vein and disseminated ores occur in biotite-plagioclase gneiss and quartz diorite along regional EW trending faults. Microthermometric data for H2O-NaCl ± CH4  ± CO2 fluid inclusions record a decrease in homogenization temperature and salinity of ore-forming fluids with time. Early and main-stage mineralization have homogenization temperatures of 242°–395°C and 173°–334°C, respectively, compared with 138°–213°C for late-stage mineralization. Fluid salinities for early mineralization have a bimodal distribution, dominantly 4.2–11.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, with 35.2–37.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent for a small population of halite-bearing inclusions. Main- and late-stage fluids have salinities of 2.1–10.2 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 0.7–8.4 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data indicate the interaction of a magmatic fluid with wall rocks in early mineralization, followed by the introduction of meteoric water during late-stage mineralization. Values of –15.9 to –12 (δ13) for hydrothermal quartz indicate that organic-rich strata were the source of carbon. Sulfur had a magmatic source, based on values of –0.1 to 1.5 (δ34) for sulfide minerals. The Bairendaba deposit is a typical mesothermal system with mineralization controlled by structure.

1. Introduction

The southern Great Xing’an Range (SGXR) occurs in southeastern Inner Mongolia and is an important metallogenic belt in China [13]. It is bounded by the Hegenshan-Heihe and Xar Moron faults to the north and south, respectively, and Songliao Basin to the east (Figure 1(a)). More than fifty deposits have been discovered in this area since the 1970s, including those of Bairendaba, Mengentaolegai, Aerhada, Huaaobaote, Daolundaba, and Shuangjianshan [49]. These deposits occur along northeast (NE) and EW trending faults, with host rocks being mainly Permian strata. Mineralization is related to magmatic-hydrothermal activity associated with Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusions [2, 10, 11].

The large Ag-Zn-Pb Bairendaba deposit occurs on the western edge of the SGXR (Figure 1(a)). It was discovered in 2001 by the Ninth Geological Prospecting Institute of Inner Mongolia and initially developed by local prospectors. The deposit is now worked by the Inner Mongolia Yindu Mining Co. Ltd. and has proven reserves of 1.4 million t Zn, 0.6 million t Pb, and 4.6 thousand t Ag. Recent studies have examined geological features, alteration, sulfur isotopes, dating of mineralization, and the origin of ore-forming fluids [1220]. However, additional data are necessary to better characterize the mineralizing fluids and understand ore deposition in the different stages of mineralization.

Data compiled from detailed field investigations were used to select samples of quartz and fluorite, from ore veins, for this study. Fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry, and laser Raman microprobe analyses generated data to determine phase ratios, volatile constituents, and trapping temperatures for the ore-forming fluids. Types of fluids inclusions in different veins were also determined to document changes and evolution of the hydrothermal system. Origins of fluids that formed the orebodies are based on new oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), carbon (C), and sulfur (S) isotope data. By combining the results of fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies, a genetic model is proposed for the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit.

2. Geologic Background

2.1. Regional Geology

Rock units in the Bairendaba district include an assemblage of Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic, and Quaternary units surrounding a medium- to high-grade metamorphic complex of amphibole-plagioclase gneiss and biotite-plagioclase gneiss (Figure 1(b)) that yield U-Pb ages of 437 ± 3 to ~316 ± 3 Ma [21, 22]. Carboniferous strata consist of marine carbonates, in contrast to Permian strata of silty slate, clastic, and volcanic rocks. Fossiliferous Permian rocks rich in organic carbon represent the main host for Ag-Zn-Pb ± Cu mineralization [2327]. Lacustrine sedimentary and continental silicic volcanic rocks make up the Jurassic strata [28]. All rock units are partially covered by unconsolidated Quaternary sediments.

Significant bodies of Paleozoic and Mesozoic intrusive igneous rocks occur throughout the region (Figure 1(b)). Paleozoic granitoids include diorite and tonalite that yield U-Pb ages of 323.9–326.5 Ma [14, 15]. These rocks constitute a high-potassium, calc-alkaline magmatic suite produced under a geodynamic regime of the Paleo-Asian Ocean slab break-off [31]. Surface exposure of Mesozoic granitoids is limited to the Beidashan granitic batholith, ~5 km southeast of the Bairendaba deposit (Figure 1(b)). The mineral composition of the granitoids is mainly quartz, plagioclase feldspar, potassium feldspar, and biotite. These granitoids yield ages of 139-140 Ma [30] and are characterized by high-silica and high-alkaline types [22], indicating formation within the Circum-Pacific tectonic domain.

The Bairendaba deposit occurs in Carboniferous and Permian strata comprising the southeast limb of a NE trending anticline, with a core of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks (Figure 1(b)). Three groups of regional faults are distinguished by their trend and style of deformation. Faults with NE trends exhibit compressional shearing, EW faults are extensional-shearing, and faults with northwest (NW) trends produced extension.

2.2. Deposit Geology and Mineralization

Three regional-fault trends are present at the mine scale and cut units of Paleozoic biotite-plagioclase gneiss and amphibole-plagioclase gneiss that strike N36 to ~61E and dip at 35° to ~58° to the northwest (Figure 2(a)). Northeast-trending faults formed in the Hercynian, whereas EW and NW trending faults formed in the Yanshanian. Orebodies at the Bairendaba deposit occur dominantly in EW faults, with NW trending faults being a secondary control on mineralization.

Intermediate-silicic igneous rocks are common in the region and occur as stocks and dykes at the Bairendaba deposit (Figure 2(a)). Devonian granite, with a SHRIMP U-Pb age of 382 ± 2 Ma [32], represents the first phase of igneous activity and occurs in the northeastern part of the deposit. A SHRIMP U-Pb age of 326.5 ± 1.6 Ma dates the high-potassium calc-alkaline Carboniferous quartz diorite [15], which is cut by dolerite and granite dykes with U-Pb ages of 314.1 ± 1.7 Ma and 318 ± 1.2 Ma, respectively [33].

Exploration of the Bairendaba deposit has discovered 54 orebodies, including 34 concealed orebodies. The bedded-type orebodies occur in biotite-plagioclase gneiss and adjacent quartz diorite. Most orebodies strike EW and dip at 8° to ~50° to the NW, with a smaller group that strike NW and dip at 26° to ~34° to the NE (Figure 2(a)).

The number 1 orebody hosts 84% of proven reserves, and ore grades are 251.5 g/t Ag, 2.8 wt.% Pb, and 6.0 wt.% Zn [34]. This economically significant orebody occurs within altered quartz diorite and is 2075 m long, has an average thickness of 3.6 m, and extends to a depth of ~1135 m (Figure 2(b)). It strikes EW and dips at 16° to ~51°, mainly to the north.

Ores textures are varied and include euhedral-subhedral crystals, metasomatic dissolution features, banding, veins, disseminations, and fillings of miarolitic cavities (Figures 3(e)–3(h)). The assemblage of sulfide minerals includes arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and galena, along with minor tetrahedrite, pyrargyrite, and argentite (Figures 3(e)–3(h)). Gangue minerals are quartz, fluorite, calcite, sericite, and epidote.

Wall-rock alteration is intense and consists of silicification, sericitization, chloritization, carbonatization, and kaolin, followed by epidotization with pyrophyllite. Silicification, chloritization, and sericitization are closely associated with Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization [18, 35].

The Bairendaba deposit contains numerous hydrothermal veins of different scale (Figures 3(a)–3(d)). Hypogene fissure-filling mineralization is divided into three paragenetic stages (Figure 4), based on ore mineralogy and cross-cutting relationships. These stages are recognized by four types of hydrothermal veins.

Early mineralization (Stage 1) is subeconomic and consists of quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite veins (A veins; Figure 3(a)). The main stage of mineralization (Stage 2) is widespread and yields the majority of Ag-Zn-Pb production. Characteristic minerals are milky white quartz, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and galena, along with minor pyrargyrite, sericite, and chlorite. Stage 2 mineralization is divided into quartz-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite veins (B veins, Stage ; Figure 3(b)) and Ag-sulfide quartz veins (C veins, Stage ; Figure 3(c)), respectively. Late-stage mineralization (Stage 3) consists of sulfide-poor calcite and fluorite veins (D veins), which have a limited distribution near the outer edge of the deposit (Figure 3(d)).

2.3. Timing of Mineralization

Age data for the Bairendaba deposit indicate mineralization and alteration occurred in the Early Cretaceous. Rb-Sr dating of sphalerite, in a quartz vein, yielded an isochron age of 116 Ma [17] that is appreciably younger than the 139 to ~140 Ma Mesozoic granitoids and does not support ore formation through magmatic-hydrothermal processes. However, an 40Ar/39Ar age of 133 ± 2 Ma for sericite [14] is consistent with mineralization being associated with Mesozoic igneous rocks.

3. Samples and Analytical Methods

Fluid inclusions were studied in samples of quartz and fluorite of vein types A–D, representing Stages 1–3. Fluid inclusion microthermometric analyses were conducted on a Linkam THMS600 heating-freezing stage with a temperature range of –196 to 600°C. Calibration of the stage was completed using the following standards: pure water inclusions (0°C), pure CO2 inclusions (–56.6°C), and potassium bichromate (398°C). This yielded an accuracy of ±0.2°C during freezing and ±2°C for heating between 100° and 600°C. Fluid salinities for NaCl-H2O inclusions were calculated using the final melting temperature of ice [36].

Fluid inclusion volatiles were analyzed using a Renishaw RM1000 Raman microprobe and Ar ion laser. Operating conditions for the Raman microprobe include the following: a surface power of 5 mW and exciting radiation of 514.5 nm; area of 20 μm2 for the detector charge-coupled device (CCD); spectra set to scanning range of 1000 to 4000/cm with an accumulation time of 30 s per scan. All fluid inclusion studies were conducted at the Geological Fluid Laboratory, College of Earth Science, Jilin University, China.

Samples of hydrothermal quartz from Stages , excluding D veins, were analyzed for O-H-C isotopes. Quartz samples for O-C isotope analyses were treated with orthophosphoric acid at 50°C for 24 h to generate CO2 [37]. Samples of quartz for H isotope analyses were placed under vacuum and heated at 150°C for 3 h to degas labile volatiles. Water was released from fluid inclusions by heating to approximately 500°C, using an induction furnace, and then converted into H2 through interaction with Zn powder at a temperature of 410°C [38]. Finally, conventional methods were used to produce SO2 gas from different sulfide minerals to measure S isotopes [39]. All samples were analyzed using a MAT-252 mass spectrometer, with analytical uncertainty of <0.1, housed at the Analytical Laboratory Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, China.

4. Results

4.1. Fluid Inclusion Petrography

Criteria established by Roedder [40] and Hollister and Burruss [41] were used to distinguish different generations of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz and fluorite. Primary inclusions are isolated or occur in random groups, compared with secondary inclusions filling microcracks. Populations of different fluid inclusion types were recognized by room temperature phase relationships, phase transitions during heating and cooling, and laser Raman spectroscopy results. Four types of fluid inclusions were identified using the nomenclature of Ramboz et al. [42], which are CH4-rich (Type Ι), CH4-CO2-H2O (Type ΙΙ), H2O-rich (Type III), and halite-bearing (Type ΙV) types.

Type Ι inclusions consist of liquid water and CH4 at room temperature, with a degree of fill ranging from 0.2 to ~0.6 (Figure 5(a)). These inclusions are common in A veins (Stage 1) and occur as bands or clusters or in isolation. They have irregular or negative crystal shapes and are typically 10 to 30 μm in size.

Type ΙΙ inclusions appear similar to Type I at room temperature (Figures 5(d)–5(f)). However, the addition of a CO2 component to CH4 in Type ΙΙ inclusions is evident during freezing and laser Raman microprobe measurements. These inclusions are absent from A veins and can occur in isolation but are more common as clusters and trails in B and C veins (Stage 2). They have regular shapes (e.g., ellipsoidal or negative crystal) and are 10 to 30 μm in size.

Type III fluid inclusions are liquid water dominant and have vapor contents of 10% to ~45% and variable shapes (e.g., irregular and ellipsoidal), ranging in size from 5 to 20 μm (Figures 5(c), 5(g)–5(i)). These inclusions are present in all stages of mineralization and commonly occur as planar arrays restricted to the interiors of quartz and fluorite grains. However, some Type III inclusions fill microfractures in Stages quartz and Stage 3 fluorite, indicating a secondary origin (Figures 5(c) and 5(i)).

Type ΙV fluid inclusions contain three phases at room temperature, which are a vapor bubble, liquid water, and halite cube (Figure 5(b)). Halite-bearing inclusions are uncommon and coexist with Types I and III in A veins of Stage 1 mineralization. Type ΙV inclusions are always <20 μm in size and occur in isolation or discrete clusters, implying a primary origin [40].

4.2. Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry

Primary fluid inclusions larger than 5 μm with a regular crystal shape, which show no signs of necking [40], were chosen for microthermometric analyses. Data for Stages 1–3 are listed in Table 1. Histograms of homogenization temperatures (Th) and salinity of different types of fluid inclusions in Stages quartz and Stage 3 fluorite are presented in Figure 6.


StageHost mineralInclusion TypeTm(CO2) (°C)Th(CO2) (°C)Tm(clath) (°C)Tm(ice) (°C)Tm(NaCl) (°C)Salinity (NaCl wt.%)Th (°C)

Stage 1QuartzI (65)−182.1 to −180.2−99.3 to −68.411.2–18.9NANANA267–395
III (39)NANANA−8.1 to −2.5NA4.2–11.8242–351
IV (5)NANANANA258–29535.2–37.8259–372
Stage QuartzII (62)−79.5 to −59.6−52.1 to −2.87.9–16.8NANANA246–334
III (38)NANANA−6.8 to −1.6NA2.7–10.2205–312
Stage QuartzII (65)−63.4 to −57.7−6.9 to 10.29.5–13.8NANANA173–282
III (44)NANANA−5.9 to −1.2NA2.1–9.1179–269
Stage 3FluoriteIII (57)NANANA−5.4 to −0.4NA0.7–8.4138–213

Tm(ice), temperature of final ice melting; Tm(NaCl), melting temperature of halite crystals; (65) is the number of inclusions measured.

Stage 1 quartz veins contain abundant Type I and III fluid inclusions, but rare Type IV inclusions. Type I inclusions freeze below –185°C and melting of the carbonic phase () occurs at –182.1° to –180.2°C (Table 1). This behavior indicates the vapor phase is nearly pure CH4. Homogenization of the carbonic phase () to vapor occurs at –99.3° to –68.4°C, and clathrate melting () between 11.2° and 18.9°C (Table 1) is much higher than the invariant point (e.g., 10°C) of a pure CO2 clathrate [41]. Type Ι inclusions with a high degree of fill decrepitate at ~350°C, prior to final homogenization, probably due to increased internal pressures of CH4 [40]. In contrast, Type Ι inclusions with a low degree of fill have Th of 267°–395°C (Figure 6(a)). Type III inclusions homogenize to the liquid phase at 242°–351°C (Figure 6(a)) and final ice melting at –8.1° to –2.5°C indicates salinities of 4.2–11.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent (Figure 6(b)). Halite crystals in Type ΙV inclusions dissolve at 258°–295°C, indicating salinities of 35.2–37.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and they have final homogenization to the liquid phase at 259°–372°C (Figures 6(a) and 6(b)).

Stage and quartz veins contain Type ΙΙ and III fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion data for Stage are presented first. Type ΙΙ inclusions freeze below –130°C and occurs between –79.5° and –59.6°C (Table 1), significantly lower than melting of pure CO2 at –56.6°C. This indicates the carbonic phase, which is mostly CH4, also contains CO2 and/or N2 [42]. Homogenization of the carbonic phase to vapor occurs between –52.1° and 2.8°C and at 7.9° to 16.8°C (Table 2). Final homogenization to the liquid phase could only be determined for fluid inclusions with a low degree of fill and Th which are 246°–334°C (Figure 6(c)). Type III inclusions homogenize to the liquid phase at 205–312°C and final ice melting at –6.8° to –1.6°C indicates salinities of 2.7–10.2 wt.% NaCl equivalent (Figures 6(c) and 6(d)).


Vein typeStagesSample description/%/%Th (°C)/%δ/%

A veins1Quartz14.1−113.43207.9−13.2
A veins1Quartz14.2−114.22806.6−12.8
A veins1Quartz14.0−1143207.8−13.1
A veins1Quartz14.1−114.62806.5−12.9
B veins2-1Quartz14.0−116.23007.1−12.9
B veins2-1Quartz13.9−116.32605.4−15.8
B veins2-1Quartz13.3−116.73006.4−12.8
B veins2-1Quartz13.2−116.52604.7−15.7
C veins2-2Quartz13.7−117.42404.3−15.9
C veins2-2Quartz13.6−117.62001.9−12.1
C veins2-2Quartz13.7−124.42404.3−15.9
C veins2-2Quartz13.5−124.62001.8−12.0

Fluid inclusion Types ΙΙ and III, representing Stage , have lower Th and are less saline than Stage (Figures 6(c)6(f)). Type ΙΙ inclusions freeze below –100°C and occurs at –63.4° to –57.7°C (Table 2). This behavior is consistent with the presence of small concentrations of CH4 and/or N2 in addition to CO2 [4446]. Homogenization of the carbonic phase to vapor occurs at –6.9° to 10.2°C and between 9.5° and 13.8°C (Table 2). Final homogenization to the liquid phase could only be determined for inclusions with a low degree of fill and occurs at 173°–282°C (Figure 6(e)). Type III inclusions homogenize to the liquid phase at 179°–269°C and final ice melting at –5.9° to –1.2°C indicates salinities of 2.1–9.1 wt.% NaCl equivalent (Figures 6(e) and 6(f)).

Fluorite veins representing Stage 3 contain only Type III fluid inclusions that record the lowest Th and salinities for the Bairendaba deposit (Figures 6(a)6(h)). Homogenization to the liquid phase occurs at 138°–213°C and final ice melting at –5.4° to –0.4°C indicates salinities of 0.7–8.4 wt.% NaCl equivalent (Figures 6(g) and 6(h)).

4.3. Laser Raman Microprobe Analysis

The data obtained by laser Raman microprobe analyses of fluid inclusions in Stages quartz and Stage 3 fluorite are presented in Figure 7. Type Ι inclusions for Stage 1 contain a vapor phase dominated by CH4 (Figures 7(a) and 7(b)), whereas Type ΙΙ inclusions for Stage 2 contain different amounts of CH4 and CO2 (Figures 7(c)7(e)). No pure CO2 inclusions were identified in this study. The vapor phase of Type III inclusions consists solely of water (Figure 7(f)).

4.4. Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon Isotopes

Isotope data for 12 quartz samples representing A-C veins in the Bairendaba deposit are reported as δ18, δ, and δ13 values. Ranges in the data are limited and are as follows: 13.2 to 14.2 (δ18); –124.6 to –113.4 (δ); –15.9 to –12.0 (δ13; Table 2). Values of 1.8 to 7.9 (δ18; Table 2) were calculated using the formula of Clayton et al. [59] and Th of fluid inclusions. These δD and δ18O values are consistent with previously published data [17, 33, 47, 60]. The C isotope data in this study are unique, because this is the first time C isotopes were measured for the gas phase of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz representing Stages of the Bairendaba deposit. Previous work by Ouyang [33] generated data strictly for Stage 3 fluorite-calcite veins.

4.5. Sulfur Isotopes

Sulfur isotope analyses were completed for mineral separates of pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, and sphalerite extracted from ore veins. All data are reported as values. Sulfide minerals from the number 1 orebody of the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit have a limited range of –0.1 to 1.5 (Table 3), which are consistent with previously published data [17, 33, 47].


SampleMineralδ34/Sample location

BR1-1Pyrite0.2Number 1 orebody at 1275 m level
BR1-2Pyrite−0.1Number1 orebody at 1145 m level
BR2-1Pyrrhotite1.5Number 1 orebody at 1275 m level
BR2-2Pyrrhotite1.4Number 1 orebody at 1145 m level
BR3Sphalerite0.5Number 1 orebody at 1270 m level
BR4Sphalerite0.9Number 1 orebody at 1142 m level
BR5Galena0.5Number 1 orebody at 1270 m level
BR6Galena0.5Number 1 orebody at 1142 m level

5. Discussion

5.1. Sources of Ore-Forming Materials

Sulfur isotopes are an important tool for determining the source(s) of ore-forming materials in deposits [57, 6163]. The Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit has δ34S values of –4.0 to 1.7 with an average of –1.0 (Figure 8). These data show a normal distribution (Figure 8) and are similar to δ34S values of –3 to 1 reported for magmatic-hydrothermal deposits [57, 63, 64]. Therefore, we propose a magmatic source for sulfur, with minor crustal contamination.

Lead (Pb) isotopes provide additional information to constrain the source(s) of ore-forming materials in deposits [65, 66]. A compilation of data for sulfide minerals from the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit shows values of 18.3–18.5 (206Pb/204Pb), 15.5–15.7 (207Pb/204Pb), and 38.1–38.6 (208Pb/204Pb) [17, 33] that are richer in uranogenic Pb but poorer in thorogenic Pb. The majority of Pb isotope data for the ore sulfides cluster between the orogenic and mantle growth curves on an uranogenic plot, with a small population above the orogenic growth curve (Figure 9(a)). A thorogenic plot shows Pb isotope data for the ore sulfides are close to the orogenic growth line (Figure 9(b)). We interpret these data to reflect a hybrid crustal-mantle source of lead.

Additional Pb isotope data exist for unmineralized rock units in the region [17, 4951] and allow for a comparison with the Bairendaba deposit. These data plot over a broader range than the ore sulfides from the Bairendaba deposit (Figures 9(a) and 9(b)). Generally, if Pb from different geological units is derived from the same source, the Pb isotope compositions and variation trends should be similar. The Pb isotope composition of the Bairendaba ores is clearly different from that of gneiss and partially overlaps with the Beidashan granite and Permian strata. The Pb isotope composition of the Bairendaba ores shows a linear correlation with, and similar minimum values to, the Beidashan granite, which indicates they may have a common origin. The range in Pb isotope data may result from later contamination.

Given the similar ages of the 139–140 Ma Beidashan granite [30] and the 133 ± 2 Ma mineralization at the Bairendaba deposit [14], we propose the Beidashan granite was a source of heat and ore-forming materials for the deposit. Sulfur isotope data support this view, but Pb isotopes suggest a hybrid crustal-mantle source. Previous studies documented that more than 60% of polymetallic deposits occur in Permian strata of the SGXR [67]. Geochemical analyses of unaltered Permian strata [43, 68] indicate high concentrations of ore-forming materials including Ag, As, Sn, Pb, and Zn (Table 4). Therefore, ore-forming materials in the Bairendaba deposit were derived from both the Beidashan granite and Permian strata.


Element contentSandstone (ppm)Slate (ppm)Arkose (ppm)Tuff (ppm)Clarke (ppm)

Mn933.16972.24825.08957.55950.00
V96.8596.0769.42121.00135.00
Ti4241.184457.843457.624464.765700.00
Cu43.4152.1240.5044.6055.00
Pb15.3514.8769.8811.8012.60
Zn81.2784.1776.7381.4670.00
As9.6111.619.4610.941.80
Sn5.186.385.483.232.00
Ag0.180.170.150.170.07
Mo1.421.191.251.191.50
Ni23.6024.2714.6115.3575.00

5.2. Fluid Sources and Evolution of the Hydrothermal System

Fluid inclusion microthermometric data and the different types of inclusions in Stages quartz and Stage 3 fluorite at the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit highlight distinct changes in the hydrothermal system with time. Histograms show a sharp decrease in temperature and salinity from Stages 1 to 3 (Figure 6). Fluid inclusion types also record a progressive change from a saline CH4-rich system to a mixed CH4 + CO2 system and late low-salinity water-dominant system.

The presence of CH4 in fluid inclusions of Stages at the Bairendaba deposit requires further discussion. Mineralizing fluids for other deposits in the SGXR, including the Weilasituo deposit that occurs 4 km to the west of Bairendaba, also contain CH4 [69]. Previous studies have proposed that CH4 originated from a deep source of reduced magma. Fluids exsolved from a reduced melt would be enriched in CH4 and not CO2 [7075]. However, cross-cutting relationships indicate dolerite dykes, derived from a deep source, predate the mineralization [14]. The metamorphism of organic-rich formations could also be a source of CH4 [41, 76]. As the Permian strata are carbon-rich [21], metamorphism caused by late magmatic activity could have produced CH4 in mineralizing fluids.

Carbon isotope data for quartz and calcite provide additional clues to the source of CH4 in ore-forming fluids. Hydrothermal quartz analyzed in this study has a broader range of δ13 values (−15.9 to −12) than calcite (−13.5 to −12.8) [33]. Although quartz and calcite represent different stages of mineralization at the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit, most samples plot within the field of organically derived carbon on a δ13 versus δ18 diagram (Figure 10). Therefore, we propose that metamorphism of carbon-rich Permian strata was the source of CH4 in the ore-forming fluids.

A potentially important point to consider is why fluids in Stage 1 are CH4-rich, whereas CO2 increases and CH4 decreases in Stage 2. Rios et al. [77] documented that fluid inclusions in ore-bearing quartz veins at a shallow level in the Pedra Preta wolframite deposit, southern Pará, are rich in CH4 compared with deep samples containing high levels of CO2, but minor CH4. This distribution of different fluid-inclusion types was attributed to the deep Musa intrusion and the oxidation of CH4 to CO2 following the reaction: + = + H2. This reaction confirms how an increase in O2 of a hydrothermal system could change a reduced CH4-rich fluid into an oxidized fluid containing CO2. However, a change in O2 could also result from the addition of oxidized meteoric water to the hydrothermal system during mineralization.

The possibility of having fluids, with different origins, in the hydrothermal system that formed the Bairendaba deposit is addressed using H and O isotope data. Ranges in values of δD and calculated δ18 (Table 2) for hydrothermal quartz, calcite, and fluorite suggest multiple sources of oxygen. Values of δD for Stage 1 quartz are lighter than those for magmatic water (−50 to −80) [64] and when paired with calculated δ18 values, they plot under the magmatic water box on a δD versus δ18 diagram (Figure 11). Data for Stage and Stage quartz show a slight shift towards the meteoric water line. In contrast, O-H isotope data for paragenetically younger calcite and fluorite define a trend towards the meteoric water line (Figure 11). The differences in these data could reflect magma degassing, fluid mixing, and/or water-rock interaction.

Magma degassing can produce significant ranges in δD and δ34S through fractionation [78]. Different degrees of degassing, in an open system, could cause δD for ore-forming fluids derived from magmatic water to be depleted by 50%–80% [79]. Fractionation of sulfur through magma degassing will also lead to a significant decrease in δ34S for different sulfide minerals [80]. However, δ34S data for the Bairendaba deposit have a limited range and this indicates fractionation did not occur and produce the observed δD depletion.

The mixing of meteoric water with magmatically derived ore fluids will cause a decrease in δD, as indicated by isotope data for Stages 1–3 at the Bairendaba deposit. Values of δD ranging from −75 to −132 [33] are intermediate between the δD of magmatic water (−50 to −80) [64] and local Mesozoic meteoric water in the SGXR (−149) [25]. Therefore, fluid mixing could account for the δD depletion.

Another possibility involves fluid interaction with common rock-forming minerals such as biotite and hornblende, which can have δD of −170 [81]. Water-rock interaction will lead to isotopic exchange and result in a decrease of δD for the evolved fluid [57, 82].

At the Bairendaba deposit, water-rock interaction is suggested by the limited range of δ18 values and CH4-rich fluid in Stage 1. An evolved meteoric water entering the hydrothermal system during Stages could explain δ18O values that trend towards the meteoric water line. Fluid inclusion data recording a decrease in CH4 content, Th, and salinity from Stages support the addition of meteoric water to the hydrothermal system with time. Therefore, we conclude the ore fluid was derived from a magmatic source that interacted with crustal rocks and mixed with meteoric water, which became more pronounced in the hydrothermal system during Stage 3.

5.3. Genesis of the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb Deposit

Fluid inclusion and stable isotope data need to be interpreted in context with geologic relationships, at both a regional and deposit scale, to develop a coherent genetic model. The Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit occurs within a region that underwent compressional tectonism caused by the pre-Mesozoic collision of the Siberian and North China plates [29, 83]. A structural fabric of NE and EW trending faults formed during this deformational event. By the early Mesozoic period, the closing of Paleo-Asian oceans and final collision between the Siberian Plate and north China resulted in a gradual transition to the Circum-Pacific tectonic domain [8487].

During the Early Cretaceous period, subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate caused large-scale volcanic events across NE China and at the Bairendaba deposit. Zircon U-Pb ages for these intrusions are 119 to ~140 Ma, with a peak at 125−140 Ma [29, 88, 89]. Geochemical characteristics of the intrusive rocks, which are closely related to mineralization in the region, show a uniform isotopic composition of low 87Sr/86Sr(i) and high εNd(t) values [9092]. This is a result of melting and differentiation of mantle materials and contamination by crustal rocks [90, 93]. The identification of metamorphic core complexes [94], bimodal volcanic rocks [9497], and widespread anorogenic A-type granites [93] suggest Early Cretaceous magmatism and related mineralization occurred while the SGXR was undergoing extension [98102].

The timing of mineralization at different ore deposits in the SGXR is documented by Ar-Ar dating of sericite and muscovite, K-Ar dating of sericite, Re-Os dating of molybdenite, and U-Pb dating of hydrothermal zircon [14, 103105]. These data indicate the interval of 120 to ~135 Ma is an important metallogenic period for the SGXR. Deposits of this age have similar δ18O and δD data that support ore-forming fluids of magmatic origin mixing with meteoric water. Sulfur isotope data for these deposits also indicate a magmatic-hydrothermal origin [1, 4, 106108]. Although different types of mineralization and alteration are evident in the region, all likely represent a metallogenic event that occurred during an extensional tectonic regime.

A geodynamic model involving crustal thinning and magmatism is proposed for mineralization in the region, including the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit. Mineralization coincided with large-scale lithospheric thinning and magmatic underplating during the Early Cretaceous period [29, 109]. Asthenospheric upwelling initiated crustal thinning, reactivated structures, and provided a heat source to circulate fluids on a regional scale. Crust-mantle interaction generated large bodies of silicic magma associated with mineralization. The process of magma emplacement and crystallization evolved fluids rich in volatiles and metals. These fluids caused alteration (e.g., silicification and chloritization), and the convective circulation of groundwater around cooling igneous intrusions leached additional metals from country rocks.

Hydrothermal fluids in a relatively closed, reducing environment transported Ag, Zn, and Pb as aqueous Cl and HS complexes [81, 110]. Factors causing the deposition of metals from ore-forming fluids in the Bairendaba deposit include a change in temperature, water-rock interaction, and fluid mixing. Fluid inclusions in samples of Stage 1 and Stage 3 mineralization record Th values of 242–395°C and 138–213°C (Table 1), respectively. As the solubility of Cl and HS complexes is correlated with temperature, the documented decrease in Th for Stages 1–3 would cause hydrothermal fluids to precipitate metals [111].

Water-rock interaction at the Bairendaba deposit is indicated by O-H isotope data (Figure 11). Reactions between the wall rocks and hydrothermal fluids would have included the following: + = + Cl + and Zn + = + + [112]. Metasomatism would have consumed H+ and driven the reaction forward. A corresponding increase in pH would have destabilized metal complexes and caused sulfide minerals to precipitate.

The occurrence of fluid mixing at the Bairendaba deposit is supported by the change in fluid inclusion types, Th, and salinities from Stages (Figures 5 and 6). The initial magmatic fluid in Stage 1 mixed with progressively greater amounts of evolved meteoric water in Stages . The mixing of fluids with different sources in the hydrothermal system would have occurred according to the following reactions: + 2H2 + 1/2 = PbS2 + 2 + H2 + and Zn + 2H2 + 1/2 = ZnS2 + 2 + H2 + [113]. A decrease in H+ and Cl concentrations of the hydrothermal fluid due to mixing would drive the reactions forward and increase O2 of a hydrothermal system, leading to the precipitation of sulfide minerals. These processes of ore deposition were common in the SGXR, where sulfide minerals precipitated within extensional structures produced by regional tectonic processes, forming large deposits.

6. Conclusions

Distinct populations of fluid inclusions in Stage 1–3 quartz and fluorite at the Bairendaba deposit record a progressive change from a saline CH4-rich system to a mixed CH4 + CO2 system and a late-stage system dominated by low-salinity water. The decrease in fluid salinity was accompanied by a decrease in temperature.

Ore-forming fluids with a magmatic source interacted with wall rocks and mixed with meteoric water, as evidenced by changes in values for δ18 and δ. Sulfur isotope data indicate a magmatic source, whereas δ13C values for fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz support the derivation of carbon from organic-rich Permian strata.

The Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb deposit is a typical mesothermal deposit that formed in an extensional environment related to Early Cretaceous subduction of the Pacific Plate.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Shandong Gold Group Co. Ltd. (Project no. SJ201309). The authors are grateful to the staff of the Shandong Gold Group Co. Ltd. and the Inner Mongolia Yindu Mining Co. Ltd. for assistance with field work and access to the Bairendaba Mine. They are also grateful to Dr. Liu for assistance with stable isotope analyses at the Analytical Laboratory Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology.

References

  1. J. B. Wang, Y. W. Wang, L. J. Wang, and T. Uemoto, “Tin-polymetallic mineralization in the southern part of the Da Hinggan Mountains, China,” Resource Geology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 283–291, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. Q. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Yu, J. Ye, and H. Liu, “Metal deposits in the da Hinggan Mountains, NE China: Styles, characteristics, and exploration potential,” International Geology Review, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 846–878, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. M. G. Zhai and M. Santosh, “Metallogeny of the North China Craton: link with secular changes in the evolving Earth,” Gondwana Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 275–297, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. X. Zhu, Q. Zhang, Y. He, C. Zhu, and Y. Huang, “Hydrothermal source rocks of the Meng' entaolegai Ag-Pb-Zn deposit in the granite batholith, inner Mongolia, China: Constrained by isotopic geochemistry,” Geochemical Journal, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 265–275, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. W. Zhang, F. Nie, S. Liu et al., “Characteristics and genesis of mineral deposits in East Ujimqin Banner, western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 97, pp. 459–471, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. Y. Q. Chen, D. Zhou, and L. F. Guo, “Genetic study on the huaaobaote Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia: evidence from fluid inclusions and S, Pb, H, O isotopes,” Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition), vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1478–1491, 2014 (Chinese). View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. J. J. Xu, Y. Lai, D. Cui et al., “Characteristics and evolution of ore-forming fluids of the Daolundaba copper-poly-metal deposit, Inner Mongolia,” Acta Petrologica Sinica, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2957–2972, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  8. Y. S. Kuang, G. R. Zheng, and M. J. Lu, “Basic characteristics of Shuangjianzishan sliver polymetallic deposit in Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia,” Mineral Deposits, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 847–856, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  9. G. B. Wu, J. M. Liu, Q. D. Zeng et al., “Occurrences of silver in the Shuangjianzishan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and its implications for mineral processing,” Earth Science Frontiers, vol. 21, pp. 105–115, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. J. F. Sheng and X. Z. Fu, Metallogenetic Environment and Geological Characteristics of Copper-Polymetallic Ore Deposits in Middle Part of Da Hinggan Mts, Seismological Publishing House, Beijing, China, 1999.
  11. Q. Zhang, X. Z. Zhan, Y. Z. Qiu et al., “Lead isotopic compostion and lead source of Meng’entaolegai Ag-Pb-Zn-In deposit in Inner Mongolia,” Geochimica, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 253–258, 2002 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  12. A. Q. Sun, S. Y. Niu, B. J. Ma et al., “A comparative study of ore-forming structures in Bairendaba and Weilatiuo silver-polymetallic deposits of Inner Mongolia,” Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition), vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1785–1805, 2011 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  13. J. Wang, Q. Y. Hou, Y. L. Chen et al., “Fluid inclusion study of the Weilasituo Cu polymetal deposit in Inner Mongolia,” Geoscience, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 847–855, 2010 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  14. X. F. Pan, L. J. Guo, S. Wang et al., “Laser microprobe Ar -Ar dating of biotite from the Weilasituo Cu-Zn polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia,” Acta Petrologica ET Mineralogica, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 473–479, 2009 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  15. Y. Chang and Y. Lai, “Study on characteristics of ore-forming fluid and chronology in the Yindu Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposit, Inner Mongolia,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 581–593, 2010 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  16. Y. F. Liu, S. H. Jiang, and Y. Zhang, “The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and geological features of Bairendaba diorite in the Xilinhaote area, Inner Mongolia, China,” Geological Bulletin of China, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 688–696, 2010 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  17. S. H. Jiang, F. J. Nie, Y. F. Liu et al., “Sulfur and lead isotopic compositions of Bairendaba and Weilasituo silver-polymetallic deposits, Inner Mongolia,” Mineral Deposits, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 101–112, 2010 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  18. J. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Q. Z. Zhang et al., “The regional metallogeny of Dahingganling, China,” Earth Science Frontiers, vol. 11, pp. 269–277, 2004 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  19. F. Y. Sun and L. Wang, “Ore -forming conditions of bairendaba Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposit, Inner Mongolia,” Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition), vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 376–383, 2008 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  20. L. J. Guo, Y. L. Xie, Z. Q. Hou et al., “Geology and ore fluid characteristics of the Bairendaba silver polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia,” Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 26–36, 2009 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  21. G. Shi, D. Liu, F. Zhang et al., “SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and its implications on the Xilin Gol Complex, Inner Mongolia, China,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 24, pp. 2742–2748, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. Y. F. Liu, Metallogenic study of bairendaba Ag polymetallic deposit in hexigten banner, Inner Mongolia [M. S. thesis], Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, China, 2009.
  23. B. H. Huang, Carboniferous and Permian Systems and Floras in the Da Hinggan Range, Geology Publishing House, Beijing, China, 1993.
  24. G. Qin, Y. Kawachi, L. Zhao, Y. Wang, and Q. Ou, “The upper Permian sedimentary facies and its role in the Dajing Cu-Sn deposit, Linxi County, Inner Mongolia, China,” Resource Geology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 293–305, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. D. Q. Zhang, “Geological setting and ore types of the Huanggang-ganzhuermiao Tin, sliver and polymetallic ore zone in eastern Inner Mongolia,” Bulletin of the Institude of Mineral Deposits Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 42–54, 1989 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  26. S. Y. Fan, H. R. Mao, X. D. Zhang et al., “Stratigraphic geochemistry of permian strata in the central da hinggan mountains and its metallogenic significance,” Regional Geology of China, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 89–97, 1997 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  27. F. Y. Sheng, X. Z. Fu, and H. N. Li, Metallogenic environment and geological characteristics of copper polymetallic deposit in the middle section of Daxing'an Mountains, Seismological Press, Beijing, China, 1999.
  28. Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Inner Mongolia (BGMRIM), Regional geology of Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia) Autonomous Region. Geologymemoir Seria 2, 25, Geology Publish House, Beijing, China, 1991.
  29. F.-Y. Wu, D.-Y. Sun, W.-C. Ge et al., “Geochronology of the Phanerozoic granitoids in northeastern China,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–30, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. Y. F. Liu, F. J. Nie, S. H. Jiang et al., “Bairendaba Pb-Zn-Ag Polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia: the mineralization zoning and its origin,” Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition), vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1055–1068, 2012 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  31. X. Zhang, S. A. Wilde, H. Zhang, and M. Zhai, “Early Permian high-K calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from NW Inner Mongolia, North China: Geochemistry, origin and tectonic implications,” Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 525–543, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. Y. Liu, S. H. Jiang, Z. G. Zhang et al., “Mineragrahy of bairendaba and weilasituo silver-polymetallic deposits in Inner Mongolia,” Mineral Deposits, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 837–854, 2011 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  33. H. G. Ouyang, Metallogenesis of bairendaba-weilasituo silver polytmetallic deposit and its geodynamic setting, in the southern segment of Great Xing’an Range, NE China [Doctoral, thesis], China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China, 2013.
  34. H. F. Xu, “Study on bairendaba polymetallic minerals of keshiketeng county,” Journal of Inner Mongolia Radio and TV University, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 41, 2004 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  35. L. M. Xiao, Discussion on characteristics and genesis of formation of bairendaba polymetal Ag deposit, chifeng, Inner Mongolia [M.S. thesis], Jilin University, Changchun, China.
  36. R. J. Bodnar, “Revised equation and table for determining the freezing point depression of H2O-Nacl solutions,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 683-684, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  37. R. N. Clayton and T. K. Mayeda, “The use of bromine pentafluoride in the extraction of oxygen from oxides and silicates for isotopic analysis,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 1963. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  38. I. Friedman, “Deuterium content of natural waters and other substances,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 89–103, 1953. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  39. B. W. Robinson and M. Kusakabe, “Quantitative preparation of sulfur dioxide, for34S/32S analyses, from sulfides by combustion with cuprous oxide,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1179–1181, 1975. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  40. E. Roedder, “Fluid inclusions,” Review of Mineral, vol. 12, p. 644, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  41. L. S. Hollister and R. C. Burruss, “Phase equilibria in fluid inclusions from the Khtada Lake metamorphic complex,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 163–175, 1976. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  42. C. Ramboz, M. Pichavant, and A. Weisbrod, “Fluid immiscibility in natural processes: Use and misuse of fluid inclusion data. II. Interpretation of fluid inclusion data in terms of immiscibility,” Chemical Geology, vol. 37, no. 1-2, pp. 29–48, 1982. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  43. Y. H. Yang, S. E. Lian, and T. Ba, “Stratigrahic geochemistry of permian strata in the central da hinggan mountains and its metallogenic significance,” Western Resources, vol. 2, pp. 178–181, 2012 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  44. P. L. F. Collins, “Gas hydrates in CO2-bearing fluid inclusions and the use of freezing data for estimation of salinity,” Economic Geology, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 1435–1444, 1979. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  45. A. M. Dreher, R. P. Xavier, B. E. Taylor, and S. L. Martini, “New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 161–184, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  46. A. V. Volkov, N. E. Savva, A. A. Sidorov et al., “Shkol'noe gold deposit, the Russian Northeast,” Geology of Ore Deposits, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 1–26, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  47. W. Mei, X. B. Lv, R. K. Tang et al., “Ore-forming fluid and its evolution of Bairendaba-Weilasituo deposits in west slope of southern Great Xing'an Range,” Earth Science (Journal of China University of Geosciences), vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 145–162, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  48. R. E. Zartman and B. R. Doe, “Plumbotectonics-the model,” Tectonophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, pp. 135–162, 1981. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  49. X. Chu, W. Huo, and X. Zhang, “Sulfur, carbon and lead isotope studies of the Dajing polymetallic deposit in Linxi County, Inner Mongolia, China - Implication for metallogenic elements from hypomagmatic source,” Resource Geology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 333–344, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  50. Q. Zeng, J. Liu, J. Liu et al., “Geology and lead-isotope study of the baiyinnuoer Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, south segment of the Da Hinggan mountains, Northeastern China,” Resource Geology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 170–180, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  51. J. Wang, Chronology and geochemistry of granitoid for the weilasituo copperpolymetal deposit in Inner Mongolia [M.S. thesis], China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China, 2009.
  52. J. W. Valley, “Stable isotope geochemistry of metamorphic rocks,” in Stable Isotopes in High Temperature Geological Processes, J. W. Valley, H. P. Taylor, J. R. O’Neil et al., Eds., vol. 16, pp. 445–489, Reviews in Mineralogy, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  53. F. J. Longstaffe, “Stable isotopes as tracers in clastic diagenesis. Short course in burial diagenesis,” in Mineral Association of Canada Short Course, I. E. Hutcheon, Ed., pp. 201–284, 1989. View at: Google Scholar
  54. R. N. Clayton, I. Friedman, D. L. Graf et al., “The origin of saline formation waters: 1. Isotopic composition,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 71, no. 16, pp. 3869–3882, 1966. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  55. B. Hitchon and I. Friedman, “Geochemistry and origin of formation waters in the western Canada sedimentary basin-I. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1321–1349, 1969. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  56. Y. K. Kharaka, F. A. F. Berry, and I. Friedman, “Isotopic composition of oil-field brines from Kettleman North Dome, California, and their geologic implications,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1899–1908, 1973. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  57. H. P. Taylor Jr., “The application of oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies to problems of hydrothermal alteration and ore deposition,” Economic Geology, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 843–883, 1974. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  58. J. Chen and H. N. Wang, Geochemistry, Science Press, Beijing, China, 2004.
  59. R. N. Clayton, J. R. O'Neil, and T. K. Mayeda, “Oxygen isotope exchange between quartz and water,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 77, no. 17, pp. 3057–3067, 1972. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  60. X. D. Wang, X. B. Lv, W. Mei et al., “Characteristics and evolution of ore-forming fluids in Bairendaba Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit, Inner Mongolia,” Mineral Deposits, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 406–418, 2014 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  61. B. R. Doe and J. S. Stacey, “The application of lead isotopes to the problems of ore genesis and ore prospect evaluation: A review,” Economic Geology, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 757–776, 1974. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  62. R. O. Rye and H. Ohmoto, “Sulfur and carbon isotopes and ore genesis: A review,” Economic Geology, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 826–842, 1974. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  63. J. Hoefs, Stable Isotope Geochemistry, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 6th edition, 2009. View at: Publisher Site
  64. H. Ohmoto and R. O. Rye, Isotopes of sulfur and carbon, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
  65. F. P. Bierlein and N. J. McNaughton, “Pb isotope fingerprinting of mesothermal gold deposits from central Victoria, Australia: Implications for ore genesis,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 633–638, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  66. Y. Qiu and N. J. McNaughton, “Source of Pb in orogenic lode-gold mineralisation: Pb isotope constraints from deep crustal rocks from the southwestern Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Australia,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 366–381, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  67. G. F. Yang, “Geological formation and ore-controlling process of permain system in the southern part of Dahingganling, Inner Mongolia,” Mineral Resources and Geology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 120–125, 1996 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  68. S. Y. Fan, H. Y. Mao, X. D. Zhang et al., “Stratigrahic geochemistry of Permian strata in the central Da Hinggan Mountains and its metallogenic significance,” Regional Geology of China, vol. 1, no. 16, pp. 89–97, 1997 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  69. H. Ouyang, J. Mao, M. Santosh, Y. Wu, L. Hou, and X. Wang, “The Early Cretaceous Weilasituo Zn-Cu-Ag vein deposit in the southern Great Xing'an Range, northeast China: Fluid inclusions, H, O, S, Pb isotope geochemistry and genetic implications,” Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 56, pp. 503–515, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  70. D. L. Hall and R. J. Bodnar, “Methane in fluid inclusions from granulites: A product of hydrogen diffusion?” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 641–651, 1990. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  71. S. K. Saxena and Y. Fei, “Fluid mixtures in the CHO system at high pressure and temperature,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 505–512, 1988. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  72. L. Q. Xia and R. L. Cao, “Research of the fluid properties from upper mantle in Xilong, Zhejiang,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 844–847, 1990 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  73. L. Su, S. Song, and Z. Wang, “CH4-rich fluid inclusions in the Yushigou mantle peridotite and their implications, North Qilian Mountains, China,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 44, no. 21, pp. 1992–1995, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  74. X. F. Pan and W. Liu, “Characeristics and significance of CH4-rich fluid inclusions from the mafic-ultramafic complex at the Xiangshan, eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang of China,” Acta Petrologica Sinica, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 211–218, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  75. S. Ishihara, “The granitoid series and mineralization,” Economic Geology, vol. 75, pp. 458–484, 1981. View at: Google Scholar
  76. J. Mullis, “Fluid inclusion studies during very low-grade metamorphism,” in Low Temperature Metamorphism, M. Frey, Ed., pp. 162–199, Blackie, Glasgow, Scotland, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  77. F. J. Rios, R. N. Villas, and K. Fuzikawa, “Fluid evolution in the Pedra Preta wolframite ore deposit, Paleoproterozoic Musa granite, eastern Amazon craton, Brazil,” Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 787–802, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  78. K. I. Shmulovich, D. Landwehr, K. Simon, and W. Heinrich, “Stable isotope fractionation between liquid and vapour in water-salt systems up to 600°C,” Chemical Geology, vol. 157, no. 3-4, pp. 343–354, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  79. B. E. Taylor, “Magmatic volatiles: isotopic variation of C, H, and S,” Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 185–225, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  80. Y.-F. Zheng, “Carbon-oxygen isotopic covariation in hydrothermal calcite during degassing of CO2 - A quantitative evaluation and application to the Kushikino gold mining area in Japan,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 246–250, 1990. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  81. H. L. Barnes, “Solubilities of ore minerals,” in Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, H. L. Barnes, Ed., pp. 404–460, Wiley, 1979. View at: Google Scholar
  82. S. M. F. Sheppard, “Characterization and isotopic variations in natural waters,” Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 16, pp. 165–183, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  83. B. Xu, J. Charvet, Y. Chen, P. Zhao, and G. Shi, “Middle Paleozoic convergent orogenic belts in western Inner Mongolia (China): Framework, kinematics, geochronology and implications for tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt,” Gondwana Research, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1342–1364, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  84. A. M. C. Şengör, B. A. Natal'In, and V. S. Burtman, “Evolution of the Altaid tectonic collage and Palaeozoic crustal growth in Eurasia,” Nature, vol. 364, no. 6435, pp. 299–307, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  85. J.-H. Zhang, W.-C. Ge, F.-Y. Wu, S. A. Wilde, J.-H. Yang, and X.-M. Liu, “Large-scale Early Cretaceous volcanic events in the northern Great Xing'an Range, Northeastern China,” Lithos, vol. 102, no. 1-2, pp. 138–157, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  86. J. H. Zhang, S. Gao, W. C. Ge et al., “Geochronology of the mesozoic volcanic rocks in the great xing'an range, northeastern china: implications for subduction-induced delamination,” Chemical Geology, vol. 276, no. 3-4, pp. 144–165, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  87. W. Xiao, S. Li, M. Santosh, and B.-M. Jahn, “Orogenic belts in Central Asia: Correlations and connections,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 49, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  88. W. C. Ge, F. Y. Wu, C. Y. Zhou et al., “Zircon U-Pb ages and its significance of mesozoic granites in the wulanhaote region, central da hinggan mountain,” Acta Petrologica Sinica, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 749–762, 2005 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  89. W. Liu, X. F. Pan, L. W. Xie et al., “Sources of material for Linxi granitoids, the southern segment of the Da Hinggan Mts.: when and how continental crust grew?” Acta Perologica Sinica, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 441–460, 2007 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  90. W. Liu, W. Siebel, X.-J. Li, and X.-F. Pan, “Petrogenesis of the Linxi granitoids, northern Inner Mongolia of China: Constraints on basaltic underplating,” Chemical Geology, vol. 219, no. 1-4, pp. 5–35, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  91. C. D. Xiao, Z. L. Zhang, and L. Q. Zhao, “Nd, Sr and Pb isotope geochemistry of yanshannian granitoids in eastern Inner Mongolia and their origins,” Geology in China, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2004 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  92. F. Guo, W. Fan, X. Gao et al., “Sr-Nd-Pb isotope mapping of Mesozoic igneous rocks in NE China: Constraints on tectonic framework and Phanerozoic crustal growth,” Lithos, vol. 120, no. 3-4, pp. 563–578, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  93. F.-Y. Wu, D.-Y. Sun, H. Li, B.-M. Jahn, and S. Wilde, “A-type granites in northeastern China: Age and geochemical constraints on their petrogenesis,” Chemical Geology, vol. 187, no. 1-2, pp. 143–173, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  94. X. D. Zhang, Q. Yu, and F. J. Chen, “Structural characteristics, origin and evolution of metamorphic core complex in central basement uplift and Xujiaweizi faulted depression in Songliao Basin, northeast China,” Earth Science Frontiers, vol. 4, pp. 411–419, 2000 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  95. W. C. Ge, Q. Lin, D. Y. Sun et al., “Geochemical characteristics of the mesozoic basalts in da hinggan ling: evidence of the mantle-crust interaction,” Acta Perologica Sinica, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 397–407, 1999 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  96. W. H. Zhang, J. Y. Qin, D. H. Zhang et al., “Fluid inclusion indicators in prophyry Au deposits: taking Jinchang gold deposit, Heilongjiang province as an example,” Acta Perologica Sinica, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2011–2016, 2008 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  97. W.-L. Xu, F.-P. Pei, F. Wang et al., “Spatial-temporal relationships of Mesozoic volcanic rocks in NE China: Constraints on tectonic overprinting and transformations between multiple tectonic regimes,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 74, pp. 167–193, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  98. Q.-R. Meng, “What drove late Mesozoic extension of the northern China-Mongolia tract?” Tectonophysics, vol. 369, no. 3-4, pp. 155–174, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  99. J. W. Mao, G. Q. Xie, Z. H. Zhang et al., “Mesozoic large-scale metallogenic pulses in north china and corresponding geodynamic settings,” Acta Perologica Sinica, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 169–188, 2005 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  100. J. A. Shao, L. Q. Zhang, Q. H. Xiao et al., “Rising of da hinggan mts in mesozoic: a possible mechanism of intracontinental orogeny,” Acta Perologica Sinica, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 789–794, 2005 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  101. F. Wang, X.-H. Zhou, L.-C. Zhang et al., “Late Mesozoic volcanism in the Great Xing'an Range (NE China): Timing and implications for the dynamic setting of NE Asia,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 251, no. 1-2, pp. 179–198, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  102. T. Wang, L. Guo, Y. Zheng et al., “Timing and processes of late Mesozoic mid-lower-crustal extension in continental NE Asia and implications for the tectonic setting of the destruction of the North China Craton: Mainly constrained by zircon U-Pb ages from metamorphic core complexes,” Lithos, vol. 154, pp. 315–345, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  103. Z. H. Zhou, L. S. Lv, J. R. Feng et al., “Molybdenite Re-Os ages of Huanggang skam Sn-Fe deposit and their geological significance, Inner Mongolia,” Acta Perologica Sinica, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 67–69, 2010 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  104. Q. H. Shu, L. Jiang, Y. Lai et al., “Geochronology and fluid inclusion study of the Aolunhua porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in arhorqin area, Inner Mongolia,” Acta Perologica Sinica, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 2601–2614, 2009 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  105. Q. Zeng, J. Liu, S. Chu et al., “Mesozoic molybdenum deposits in the East Xingmeng orogenic belt, northeast China: Characteristics and tectonic setting,” International Geology Review, vol. 54, no. 16, pp. 1843–1869, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  106. W. Liu, X. J. Li, and J. Tan, “Fluid mixing in the Dajing Cu-Sn-Ag-Pb-Zn deposits, Inner Mongolia: Evidences from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes,” Science in China (Series D), vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 405–414, 2002 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  107. Z. H. Zhou, Geology and Geochemistry of Huanggang Sn-Fe Deposits, Inner Mongolia, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, China, 2011.
  108. H. Ouyang, J. Mao, and M. Santosh, “Anatomy of a large Ag-Pb-Zn deposit in the Great Xing'an Range, northeast China: Metallogeny associated with Early Cretaceous magmatism,” International Geology Review, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 411–429, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  109. J.-H. Zhang, S. Gao, W.-C. Ge et al., “Geochronology of the Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the Great Xing'an Range, northeastern China: Implications for subduction-induced delamination,” Chemical Geology, vol. 276, no. 3-4, pp. 144–165, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  110. R. X. Zhu, L. Chen, F. Y. Wu, and J. L. Liu, “Timing, scale and mechanism of the destruction of the North China Craton,” Science China Earth Sciences, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 789–797, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  111. S. A. Wood, D. A. Crerar, and M. P. Borcsik, “Solubility of the assemblage pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-sphalerite-galena- gold-stibnite-bismuthinite-argentite-molybdenite in H2O-NaCl-CO2 Solutions from 200° to 350°C,” Economic Geology, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 1864–1887, 1987. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  112. Y. Zhang, R. S. Han, and P. T. Wei, “Mechanisms of Zn-Pb transortation and deposition in the ore-forming fluids of skarn-type Zn-Pb deposit,” Geological Review, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 187–201, 2016 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar
  113. X. Chen, J. J. Liu, Y. C. Li et al., “Mechanisms of lead transortation and deposition in hydrothermal deposits,” Geological Science and Technology Information, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 45–57, 2015 (Chinese). View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2017 Shunda Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder
Views1033
Downloads595
Citations

Related articles

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.