Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Geofluids
Volume 2017, Article ID 8190109, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8190109
Research Article

Fault-Related Controls on Upward Hydrothermal Flow: An Integrated Geological Study of the Têt Fault System, Eastern Pyrénées (France)

1Géosciences Montpellier, UMR 5243, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
2BRGM, ISTO, UMR 7327, 3 av. C. Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2, France
3BRGM Occitanie-Site de Montpellier (Direction Régionale), 1039 rue de Pinville, 34000 Montpellier, France
4Calle Austria 2181, Asuncion, Paraguay

Correspondence should be addressed to Audrey Taillefer; rf.2ptnom-vinu.mg@refelliat.yerdua

Received 25 November 2016; Revised 8 March 2017; Accepted 23 April 2017; Published 2 August 2017

Academic Editor: Mark Tingay

Copyright © 2017 Audrey Taillefer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Curewitz and J. A. Karson, “Structural settings of hydrothermal outflow: Fracture permeability maintained by fault propagation and interaction,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 79, no. 3-4, pp. 149–168, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. S. Moeck, “Catalog of geothermal play types based on geologic controls,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 37, pp. 867–882, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. V. Bouchot, H. Traineau, L. Guillou-Frottier et al., “Assessment of the bouillante geothermal field (guadeloupe, french west indies): toward a conceptual model of the high temperature geothermal system,” in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress, Bali, Indonesia, 2010.
  4. P. Grimaud, J. Richter, J. Rolet et al., “Fault geometry and extension mechanisms in the central Kenuya rift, East-Africa-A 3D remote-sensing approach,” Bulletin des Centres de Recherches Exploration-Production Elf Aquitaine, vol. 18, pp. 59–92, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  5. R. Cioni, G. Fanelli, M. Guidi, J. K. Kinyariro, and L. Marini, “Lake Bogoria hot springs (Kenya): geochemical features and geothermal implications,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 231–246, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Genter, K. Evans, N. Cuenot, D. Fritsch, and B. Sanjuan, “Contribution of the exploration of deep crystalline fractured reservoir of Soultz to the knowledge of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS),” Comptes Rendus - Geoscience, vol. 342, no. 7-8, pp. 502–516, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. E. Grasby and I. Hutcheon, “Controls on the distribution of thermal springs in the southern Canadian Cordillera,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 427–440, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. E. Faulds, M. Coolbaugh, V. Bouchot, I. Moek, and K. Oguz, “Characterizing structural controls of geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin, USA, and Western Turkey: developing successful exploration strategies in extended,” in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress, pp. 25–29, Paris, France, 2010.
  9. R. Sonney and F.-D. Vuataz, “Numerical modelling of Alpine deep flow systems: A management and prediction tool for an exploited geothermal reservoir (Lavey-les-Bains, Switzerland),” Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 601–616, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Velard, “Modeles simples de comportement dune source deau chaude,” Essai D’Application Aux Sources Thermales de la Haute Vallée de la Têt (Pyrénées Orientales), 1979.
  11. J. R. McKenna and D. D. Blackwell, “Numerical modeling of transient Basin and Range extensional geothermal systems,” Geothermics, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 457–476, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Benoit, “Conceptual models of the dixie valley, nevada geothermal field,” in Proceedings of the GRC Transactions. Geothermal Resources Council, pp. 505–512, 1999.
  13. C. Wanner, L. Peiffer, E. Sonnenthal, N. Spycher, J. Iovenitti, and B. M. Kennedy, “Reactive transport modeling of the Dixie Valley geothermal area: Insights on flow and geothermometry,” Geothermics, vol. 51, pp. 130–141, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. M. Belgrano, M. Herwegh, and A. Berger, “Inherited structural controls on fault geometry, architecture and hydrothermal activity: an example from Grimsel Pass, Switzerland,” Swiss Journal of Geosciences, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 345–364, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. S. Caine, R. L. Bruhn, and C. B. Forster, “Internal structure, fault rocks, and inferences regarding deformation, fluid flow, and mineralization in the seismogenic Stillwater normal fault, Dixie Valley, Nevada,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1576–1589, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. T. Nelson, A. L. Mayo, S. Gilfillan et al., “Enhanced fracture permeability and accompanying fluid flow in the footwall of a normal fault: The Hurricane fault at Pah Tempe hot springs, Washington County, Utah,” Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, vol. 121, no. 1-2, pp. 236–246, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. B. Forster, J. S. Caine, S. Schulz, and D. L. Nielson, “Fault Zone Architecture and Fluid Flow an Example From Dixie Valley, Nevada,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, pp. 123–130, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif, USA, 1997.
  18. L. A. Derry, M. J. Evans, R. Darling, and C. France-Lanord, “Hydrothermal heat flow near the Main Central Thrust, central Nepal Himalaya,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 286, no. 1-2, pp. 101–109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Forster and L. Smith, “The influence of groundwater flow on thermal regimes in mountainous terrain: A model study,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 94, no. B7, p. 9439, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. J. E. Faulds, V. Bouchot, I. Moeck, and K. Oǧuz, “Structural controls on geothermal systems in western Turkey: A preliminary report,” in Proceedings of the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2009, Geothermal 2009, pp. 334–340, October 2009. View at Scopus
  21. V. Harcouët-Menou, L. Guillou-Frottier, A. Bonneville, P. M. Adler, and V. Mourzenko, “Hydrothermal convection in and around mineralized fault zones: Insights from two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling applied to the Ashanti belt, Ghana,” Geofluids, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 116–137, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Magri, S. Möller, N. Inbar et al., “2D and 3D coexisting modes of thermal convection in fractured hydrothermal systems - Implications for transboundary flow in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 78, pp. 750–758, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Gleeson and S. E. Ingebritse, Crustal Permeability, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Bellani, A. Brogi, A. Lazzarotto, D. Liotta, and G. Ranalli, “Heat flow, deep temperatures and extensional structures in the Larderello Geothermal Field (Italy): Constraints on geothermal fluid flow,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 15–29, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Henley and A. Ellis, “Geothermal systems ancient and modern: a geochemical review,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–50, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. W. M. Calvin, E. F. Littlefield, and C. Kratt, “Remote sensing of geothermal-related minerals for resource exploration in Nevada,” Geothermics, vol. 53, pp. 517–526, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. F. Bense, T. Gleeson, S. E. Loveless, O. Bour, and J. Scibek, “Fault zone hydrogeology,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 171–192, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. A. J. Wibberley, G. Yielding, and G. Di Toro, “Recent advances in the understanding of fault zone internal structure: A review,” Geological Society Special Publication, vol. 299, pp. 5–33, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. J. Knipe, G. Jones, and Q. J. Fisher, “Faulting, fault sealing and fluid flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs: an introduction,” Geological Society Special Publication, vol. 147, pp. vii–xxi, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Fossen and A. Bale, “Deformation bands and their influence on fluid flow,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 1685–1700, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Ballas, R. Soliva, J.-P. Sizun, A. Benedicto, T. Cavailhes, and S. Raynaud, “The importance of the degree of cataclasis in shear bands for fluid flow in porous sandstone Provence, France,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 2167–2186, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Yielding, B. Freeman, and D. T. Needham, “Quantitative fault seal prediction,” Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull, vol. 81, pp. 897–917, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  33. N. G. Lindsay, F. C. Murphy, J. J. Walsh, and J. Watterson, “Outcrop studies of shale smears on fault surfaces,” Geol. Model. Hydrocarb. Reserv. Outcrop Analog, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  34. D. R. Faulkner, C. A. L. Jackson, R. J. Lunn et al., “A review of recent developments concerning the structure, mechanics and fluid flow properties of fault zones,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1557–1575, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. M. Mitchell and D. R. Faulkner, “Towards quantifying the matrix permeability of fault damage zones in low porosity rocks,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 339-340, pp. 24–31, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. S. Caine, J. P. Evans, and C. B. Forster, “Fault zone architechture and permeability structure,” Geology, vol. 24, pp. 1025–1028, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  37. J. V. Rowland and R. H. Sibson, “Structural controls on hydrothermal flow in a segmented rift system, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand,” Geofluids, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 259–283, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. C. Long and P. A. Witherspoon, “The relationship of the degree of interconnection to permeability in fracture networks,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 90, no. B4, pp. 3087–3097, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. H. Ligtenberg, “Detection of Fluid migration pathways in seismic data: Implications for fault seal analysis,” Basin Research, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 141–153, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. E. Faulds and G. Melosh, “A preliminary structural model for the blue mountain geothermal field, Humboldt County, Nevada,” in Proceedings of the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2008: "Geothermal - Gaining Steam", pp. 234–239, October 2008. View at Scopus
  41. M. Person, A. Hofstra, D. Sweetkind et al., “Analytical and numerical models of hydrothermal fluid flow at fault intersections,” Geofluids, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 312–326, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Soliva and A. Benedicto, “A linkage criterion for segmented normal faults,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2251–2267, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Walsh, W. Bailey, C. Childs, A. Nicol, and C. Bonson, “Formation of segmented normal faults: a 3-D perspective,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1251–1262, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. R. H. Sibson, “Fluid involvement in normal faulting,” Journal of Geodynamics, vol. 29, no. 3-5, pp. 469–499, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. Q. J. Fisher and R. J. Knipe, “The permeability of faults within siliciclastic petroleum reservoirs of the North Sea and Norwegian Continental Shelf,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1063–1081, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. E. Laubach, J. E. Olson, and J. F. W. Gale, “Are open fractures necessarily aligned with maximum horizontal stress?” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 222, no. 1, pp. 191–195, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. Barton, C. A. Zoback, and M. D. Moos, “Fluid flow along potencially active faults in crystalline rock,” Geology, vol. 23, pp. 683–686, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  48. S. C. Cox, C. D. Menzies, R. Sutherland, P. H. Denys, C. Chamberlain, and D. A. H. Teagle, “Changes in hot spring temperature and hydrogeology of the Alpine Fault hanging wall, New Zealand, induced by distal South Island earthquakes,” Geofluids, vol. 15, pp. 216–239, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  49. A. Souriau and H. Pauchet, “A new synthesis of Pyrenean seismicity and its tectonic implications,” Tectonophysics, vol. 290, no. 3-4, pp. 221–244, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Krimissa, “Application des méthodes isotopiques à létude des eaux thermales en milieu granitique (Pyrénées, France),” 1995.
  51. P. Labaume, F. Meresse, M. Jolivet, A. Teixell, and A. Lahfid, “Tectonothermal history of an exhumed thrust-sheet-top basin: An example from the south Pyrenean thrust belt,” Tectonics, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1280–1313, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. Guitard, B. Laumonier, and A. Autran, “Notice explicative, Carte géologique France (1: 50.000), feuille Prades (1095), Orléans, BRGM,” 1998.
  53. F. Arthaud and S. Pistre, “Les fractures et les paléoncontraintes du granite hercynien de Millas (zone axiale des Pyrénées): un cas d’étude la tectonique cassante d’un aquifère de socle,” Geodinamica Acta, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 187–201, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. O. Maurel, L'exhumation de la Zone Axiale des Pyrénées orientales: une approche thermo-chronologique multi-méthodes du rôle des failles [Ph.D. Thesis], Université Montpellier II-Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2003.
  55. J.-M. Carozza, “Evolution des systèmes géomorphologiques en contexte orogenique: l’exemple des bassins d’alimentation du Roussillon (Pyrénées Orientales),” in Approche Morphotectonique, vol. 2, Toulouse, France, 1998, http://www.theses.fr/1998TOU20070. View at Google Scholar
  56. O. Maurel, M. Brunel, and P. Monié, “Exhumation cénozoïque des massifs du Canigou et de Mont-Louis (Pyrénées orientales, France),” Comptes Rendus-Geoscience, vol. 334, no. 12, pp. 941–948, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. Delcaillau, J. Carozza, and M. Font, “Le segment nord de la faille de la Tet (Pyrénées-Orientales): fonctionnement néogène et implications géomorphologiques,” Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 257–272, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. X. Goula, C. Olivera, J. Fleta et al., “Present and recent stress regime in the eastern part of the Pyrenees,” Tectonophysics, vol. 308, no. 4, pp. 487–502, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Briais, R. Armijo, T. Winter, and P. Tapponier, “Morphological evidence for Quaternary normal faulting and seismic hazard in the Eastern Pyrenees,” Annales Tectonicae, vol. 4, pp. 19–42, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  60. M. Calvet, “Régimes des contraintes et volumes de relief dans l’est des Pyrénées/Stress regimes and volumes of reliefs in the Eastern Pyrenees,” Geomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 253–278, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. C. Petit and F. Mouthereau, “Steep topographic slope preservation by anisotropic diffusion: An example from the Neogene Têt fault scarp, eastern Pyrenees,” Geomorphology, vol. 171-172, pp. 173–179, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. Carozza and B. Delcaillau, “Drainage basins response to active tectonics: example from Eastern Pyrenees. Morphotectonic approach,” Geomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 45–60, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. O. Maurel, P. Moniè, R. Pik, N. Arnaud, M. Brunel, and M. Jolivet, “The Meso-Cenozoic thermo-tectonic evolution of the Eastern Pyrenees: An 40Ar/39Ar fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronological study of the Canigou and Mont-Louis massifs,” International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 565–584, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. P. Lacan and M. Ortuño, “Active Tectonics of the Pyrenees: A review/Revisión de la tectónica activa de los Pirineos,” Journal of Iberian Geology, vol. 38, no. 1, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. M. Calvet, Y. Gunnell, and M. Delmas, “The têt river valley: a condensed record of long-term landscape evolution in the pyrenees,” in Landscapes and Landforms of France, World Geomorphological Landscapes, pp. 127–138, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. H. Philip, J. Bousquet, and J. Escuer, “Présence de failles inverses d’âge quaternaire dans l’Est des Pyrénées: implications sismotectoniques,” Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'académie des Sciences, pp. 1239–1245, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. Genti, J. Chery, P. Vernant, and A. Rigo, “Impact of gravity forces and topography denudation on normal faulting in Central-Western Pyrenees: Insights from 2D numerical models,” Comptes Rendus - Geoscience, vol. 348, no. 3-4, pp. 173–183, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. P. Vernant, F. Hivert, J. Chéry, P. Steer, R. Cattin, and A. Rigo, “Erosion-induced isostatic rebound triggers extension in low convergent mountain ranges,” Geology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 467–470, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Caballero, C. Gironde, and E. Le Goff, “Ressource en eau thermale de la station d'Amelie-les-Bains. Etat des lieux,” Rapport BRGM/RP-60618-FR, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  70. B. Ladouche, C. Lamotte, E. Le-Goff, and P. Vigouroux, “Etat des lieux ressource en eau thermale du site des Escaldes (66),” Rapport Final BRGM/RP-63985-FR, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  71. N. Courtois, P. Le Strat, and P. Vigouroux, “Vigouroux, Valorisation de la ressource en eau chaude et developpement local du Canton d'Olette (66),” BRGM/RP-53078- FR, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  72. V. Petit, E. Le Goff, and N. Brisset, “Ressource en eau thermale des Thermes de Vernet-Les-Bains – Etat des lieux (Pyrenees Orientales),” BRGM/RP-59182-FR, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  73. F. Velard and M. Combarnous, “A hot-spring model-heat-transfert in the rising branch of the hydrothermal circuit,” comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'académie des Sciences, vol. 291, pp. 63–66, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  74. H. Serra and B. Sunjuan, “Synthèse bibliographique des géothermomètres chimiques appliqués aux eaux géothermales: rapport final,” BRGM/RP-52430-FR, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  75. A. Autran, M. Calvet, and M. Delmas, “Carte géologique France (1/50 000), feuille Saillagouse (1094),” Orléans: BRGM, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  76. R. S. Yeats, K. E. Sieh, C. R. Allen, and E. L. Geist, The Geology of Earthquackes, 1997.
  77. L. Guillou-Frottier, C. Carre, B. Bourgine, V. Bouchot, and A. Genter, “Structure of hydrothermal convection in the Upper Rhine Graben as inferred from corrected temperature data and basin-scale numerical models,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 256, pp. 29–49, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. L. López and L. Smith, “Fluid flow in fault zones: analysis of the interplay of convective circulation and topographically driven groundwater flow,” Water Resources Research, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1489–1503, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. Eldursi, Y. Branquet, L. Guillou-Frottier, and E. Marcoux, “Numerical investigation of transient hydrothermal processes around intrusions: Heat-transfer and fluid-circulation controlled mineralization patterns,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 288, no. 1-2, pp. 70–83, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. Garibaldi, G.-F. Laurent, J.-M. Lardeaux et al., “Thermal anomalies and geological structures in the Provence basin: Implications for hydrothermal circulations at depth,” Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, vol. 181, no. 4, pp. 363–376, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. L. Gerdes, L. P. Baumgartner, and M. Person, “Convective fluid flow through heterogeneous country rocks during contact metamorphism,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 23983–24003, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Rabinowicz, J. Boulègue, and P. Genthon, “Two- and three-dimensional modeling of hydrothermal convection in the sedimented Middle Valley segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 24045–24065, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. H. Sibson, “Fault rocks and fault mechanisms,” Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 191–213, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. P. M. Black, “Harmotome from the Tokatoka district, New Zealand,” Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 37, no. 288, pp. 453–458, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. W. Brace, “Permeability of crystalline and argillaceous rocks,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 241–251, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. J. P. Evans, C. B. Forster, and J. V. Goddard, “Permeability of fault-related rocks, and implications for hydraulic structure of fault zones,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1393–1404, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. A. Simms and G. Garven, “Thermal convection in faulted extensional sedimentary basins: Theoretical results from finite-element modeling,” Geofluids, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 109–130, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. F. Magri, T. Akar, U. Gemici, and A. Pekdeger, “Deep geothermal groundwater flow in the Seferihisar-Balçova area, Turkey: Results from transient numerical simulations of coupled fluid flow and heat transport processes,” Geofluids, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 388–405, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. Ballas, H. Fossen, and R. Soliva, “Factors controlling permeability of cataclastic deformation bands and faults in porous sandstone reservoirs,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 76, pp. 1–21, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. F. M. Chester and J. M. Logan, “Implications for mechanical properties of brittle faults from observations of the Punchbowl fault zone, California,” Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, vol. 124, no. 1-2, pp. 79–106, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. F. Balsamo, F. Storti, F. Salvini, A. T. Silva, and C. C. Lima, “Structural and petrophysical evolution of extensional fault zones in low-porosity, poorly lithified sandstones of the Barreiras Formation, NE Brazil,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1806–1826, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. D. R. Faulkner, A. C. Lewis, and E. H. Rutter, “On the internal structure and mechanics of large strike-slip fault zones: Field observations of the Carboneras fault in southeastern Spain,” Tectonophysics, vol. 367, no. 3-4, pp. 235–251, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Mahé, Etude de la fracturation et de la déformation d'un massif rocheux aux abords d'une faille d'échelle crustale dans le cadre du tracé du tunnel routier de Saint-Béat [Ph.D. Thesis], Montpellier, France, 2013.
  94. N. R. Backeberg, C. D. Rowe, and N. Barshi, “Alteration-weakening leading to localized deformation in a damage aureole adjacent to a dormant shear zone,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 90, pp. 144–156, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. L. Griffiths, M. J. Heap, F. Wang et al., “Geothermal implications for fracture-filling hydrothermal precipitation,” Geothermics, vol. 64, pp. 235–245, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. S. Caine, J. P. Evans, and C. B. Forster, “Fault zone architecture and permeability structure,” Geology, vol. 2, pp. 1025–1028, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. A. Aydin, “Fractures, faults, and hydrocarbon entrapment, migration and flow,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 797–814, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. R. H. Sibson, “Earthquake rupturing as a mineralizing agent in hydrothermal systems,” Geology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 701–704, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. F. Brace, “Permeability of crystalline rocks: New in situ measurements,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 89, no. B6, pp. 4327–4330, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar