Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Geofluids
Volume 2017, Article ID 9562507, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9562507
Research Article

Hydrothermal Dissolution of Deeply Buried Cambrian Dolomite Rocks and Porosity Generation: Integrated with Geological Studies and Reactive Transport Modeling in the Tarim Basin, China

1Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
3Department of Geology, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada S4S 0A2
4Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology, SINOPEC, Wuxi 214151, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Daizhao Chen; nc.ca.sacggi.liam@nehc-hzd

Received 12 January 2017; Accepted 20 March 2017; Published 4 May 2017

Academic Editor: Keyu Liu

Copyright © 2017 Wenwen Wei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. O. Roehl and P. W. Choquette, Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1985.
  2. J. Garland, J. Neilson, S. E. Laubach, and K. J. Whidden, “Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis,” Geological Society Special Publication, vol. 370, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. W. Schmoker and R. B. Halley, “Carbonate porosity versus depth: a predictable relation for south Florida,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 2561–2570, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. N. Ehrenberg, G. P. Eberli, M. Keramati, and S. A. Moallemi, “Porosity-permeability relationships in interlayered limestone-dolostone reservoirs,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 91–114, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Zhu, Q. Meng, Z. Jin, Q. Liu, and W. Hu, “Formation mechanism of deep Cambrian dolomite reservoirs in the Tarim basin, northwestern China,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 59, pp. 232–244, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. F. Whitaker, P. L. Smart, and G. D. Jones, “Dolomitization: from conceptual to numerical models,” Geological Society Special Publication, vol. 235, pp. 99–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. F. Whitaker and Y. Xiao, “Reactive transport modeling of early burial dolomitization of carbonate platforms by geothermal convection,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 889–917, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. D. Jones and Y. Xiao, “Geothermal convection in South Atlantic subsalt lacustrine carbonates: developing diagenesis and reservoir quality predictive concepts with reactive transport models,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 1249–1271, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Xu, E. Sonnenthal, N. Spycher, and K. Pruess, TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-Isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variable Saturated Geologic Media, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 2008.
  10. G. D. Jones and Y. Xiao, “Dolomitization, anhydrite cementation, and porosity evolution in a reflux system: insights from reactive transport models,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 577–601, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Lu and D. Cantrell, “Reactive transport modelling of reflux dolomitization in the Arab-D reservoir, Ghawar field, Saudi Arabia,” Sedimentology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 865–892, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Garcia-Fresca, F. Jerry Lucia, J. M. Sharp Jr., and C. Kerans, “Outcrop-constrained hydrogeological simulations of brine reflux and early dolomitization of the Permian San Andres Formation,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 1757–1781, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Xiao, G. D. Jones, F. F. Whitaker et al., “Fundamental approaches to dolomitization and carbonate diagenesis in different hydrogeological systems and the impact on reservoir quality distribution,” in Proceedings of the sixth International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC '13), pp. 1164–1179, Beijing, China, March 2013. View at Scopus
  14. G. R. Davies and L. B. Smith Jr., “Structurally controlled hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies: an overview,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1641–1690, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. R. Qing and E. W. Mountjoy, “Formation of coarsely crystalline, hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in the Presquile Barrier, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 55–77, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  16. H. G. Machel, “Concepts and models of dolomitization: a critical reappraisal,” in The Geometry and Petrogenesis of Dolomite Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, vol. 235, pp. 7–63, Geological Society London Special Publications, London, UK, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  17. Z. Gao, T. Fan, Z. Jiao, and Y. Li, “The structural types and depositional characteristics of carbonate platform in the cambrian-ordovician of tarim basin,” Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  18. Z. Zhao, Y. Zhang, M. Pan, W. U. Xingning, and W. Pan, “Cambrian sequence stratigraphic framework in Tarim Basin,” Geological Review, vol. 56, pp. 609–620, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. Z. Feng, Z. Bao, M. Wu, Z. Jin, and X. Shi, “Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Cambrian in Tarim area,” Journal of Palaeogeography, vol. 8, pp. 427–439, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  20. Z. Feng, Z. Bao, M. Wu, Z. Jin, X. Shi, and A. R. Luo, “Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Ordovician in Tarim area,” Journal of Palaeogeography, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 447–460, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  21. Z. Zhao, W. Pan, L. Zhang, S. Deng, and Z. Huang, “Sequence stratigraphy in the ordovician in the Tarim Basin,” Geotectonica et Metallogenia, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 175–188, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  22. Z. Jin, Y. Zhang, and S. Chen, “Wave tectono-sedimentary processes in Tarim basin,” Science in China, Series D: Earth Sciences, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 1949–1959, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. L. He, H. B. Mao, X. F. Zhou, M. Cong, and X. Y. She, “Complex petroleum system and multicycle basin in Tarim,” Oil & Gas Geology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 207–213, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  24. Y. Kang and Z. Kang, “Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin,” Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 13, no. 3–5, pp. 317–325, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Guo, D. Chen, H. Qing et al., “Multiple dolomitization and later hydrothermal alteration on the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician carbonates in the northern Tarim Basin, China,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 72, pp. 295–316, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Jin, D. Zhu, W. Hu, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and X. Yan, “Geological and geochemical signatures of hydrothermal activity and their influence on carbonate reservoir beds in the Tarim Basin,” Acta Geologica Sinica, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 245–253, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Dong, D. Chen, H. Qing et al., “Hydrothermal alteration of dolostones in the Lower Ordovician, Tarim Basin, NW China: multiple constraints from petrology, isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusion microthermometry,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 46, pp. 270–286, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Chen, S. Yang, C. Dong et al., “Geological thermal events in Tarim Basin,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 580–584, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Dong, D. Chen, H. Qing, M. Jiang, and X. Zhou, “In situ stable isotopic constraints on dolomitizing fluids for the hydrothermally-originated saddle dolomites at Keping, Tarim Basin,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 58, no. 23, pp. 2877–2882, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Zou, Z. Li, Z. Ren et al., “U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from permian sedimentary rocks in keping area of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China: constraints on geological evolution of tarim block,” Acta Petrologica Sinica, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 3369–3388, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Zhou, S. A. Graham, E. Z. Chang, B. Wang, and B. Hacker, “Paleozoic amalgamation of the Chinese Tian Sahn: evidence from a trnsect along the Dushanzi-Kuqa Highway,” in Paleozoic and Mesozoic Tectonic Evolution of Central and Eastern Asia: From Continetal Assembly to Intracontinental Deformation, M. S. Hendix and G. A. Davis, Eds., vol. 194 of Geological Society of America Memoirs, pp. 23–46, Geological Society of America, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  32. W. Xiao, C. Han, C. Yuan et al., “Middle Cambrian to Permian subduction-related accretionary orogenesis of Northern Xinjiang, NW China: implications for the tectonic evolution of central Asia,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 32, no. 2–4, pp. 102–117, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W.-J. Xiao, L.-C. Zhang, K.-Z. Qin, S. Sun, and J.-L. Li, “Paleozoic accretionary and collisional tectonics of the Eastern Tianshan (China): implications for the continental growth of central Asia,” American Journal of Science, vol. 304, no. 4, pp. 370–395, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Caputo, “Why joints are more abundant than faults. A conceptual model to estimate their ratio in layered carbonate rocks,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1257–1270, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Zhang, G. Hou, W. Pan et al., “Research on the effectiveness of fractures in Sinian-Cambrian dolomite reservoir in Tarim Basin,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 993–1001, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. A. Underwood, M. L. Cooke, J. A. Simo, and M. A. Muldoon, “Stratigraphic controls on vertical fracture patterns in Silurian dolomite, northeastern Wisconsin,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 121–142, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Ye, “Deep dissolution of Cambrian-Odovician carbonates in the Northern Tarin Basin,” Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, vol. 12, pp. 66–71, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  38. L. Jiang, W. Pan, C. Cai et al., “Fluid mixing induced by hydrothermal activity in the ordovician carbonates in Tarim Basin, China,” Geofluids, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 483–498, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. X. You, S. Sun, J. Zhu, Q. Li, W. Hu, and H. Dong, “Microbially mediated dolomite in Cambrian stromatolites from the Tarim Basin, north-west China: implications for the role of organic substrate on dolomite precipitation,” Terra Nova, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 387–395, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G.-Y. Wu, Y.-J. Li, Y.-L. Liu, Y. Zhao, and H. Li, “Petrochemistry and regional tectonic implications of Permian-Early Triassic volcanic rocks in the Tabei rise, Tarim basin,” Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 21–30, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y.-G. Xu, X. Wei, Z.-Y. Luo, H.-Q. Liu, and J. Cao, “The Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province: main characteristics and a plume incubation model,” Lithos, vol. 204, pp. 20–35, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. J. Lucia, “Rock-fabric/petrophysical classification of carbonate pore space for reservoir characterization,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 1275–1300, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. D. Jones and Y. Xiao, “Geothermal convection in the Tengiz carbonate platform, Kazakhstan: reactive transport models of diagenesis and reservoir quality,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 1251–1272, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. J. Harrison and L. L. Summa, “Paleohydrology of the Gulf of Mexico basin,” American Journal of Science, vol. 291, no. 2, pp. 109–176, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. E. Manning and S. E. Ingebritsen, “Permeability of the continental crust: implications of geothermal data and metamorphic systems,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 127–150, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. F. Bense, T. Gleeson, S. E. Loveless, O. Bour, and J. Scibek, “Fault zone hydrogeology,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 171–192, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. E. Ingebritsen and C. E. Manning, “Permeability of the continental crust: dynamic variations inferred from seismicity and metamorphism,” Geofluids, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 193–205, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Cai, S. G. Franks, and P. Aagaard, “Origin and migration of brines from Paleozoic strata in Central Tarim, China: constraints from 87Sr/86Sr, δd, δ18O and water chemistry,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 16, no. 9-10, pp. 1269–1284, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. L. Palandri and Y. K. Kharaka, “A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling,” U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2004-1068, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  50. S. N. Ehrenberg, O. Walderhaug, and K. Bjerlykke, “Carbonate porosity creation by mesogenetic dissolution: reality or illusion?” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 217–225, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. Cai, K. Li, H. Li, and B. Zhang, “Evidence for cross formational hot brine flow from integrated 87Sr/86Sr, REE and fluid inclusions of the Ordovician veins in Central Tarim, China,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 2226–2235, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Manga, I. Beresnev, E. E. Brodsky et al., “Changes in permeability caused by transient stresses: field observations, experiments, and mechanisms,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 50, no. 2, Article ID RG2004, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. M. Mitchell and D. R. Faulkner, “Towards quantifying the matrix permeability of fault damage zones in low porosity rocks,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 339-340, pp. 24–31, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. Garven, “Continental-scale groundwater flow and geologic processes,” Annual Review of Earth Planetary Sciences, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 89–118, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  55. G. Garven and R. A. Freeze, “Theoretical analysis of the role of groundwater flow in the genesis of stratabound ore deposits. 1. Mathematical and numerical model,” American Journal of Science, vol. 284, no. 10, pp. 1085–1124, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus