(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 14: A cross-section (SPH points inside the range) of the unit cell. Color notation is the same as for previous figure showing a cross-section. Images correspond to (a) Initial sample surface, = 0 s. (b) No confining stress is applied. = 4 s. (c) Constant volume boundary conditions. No damage model is applied, and the . Time = 3.6 s. (d) Constant volume boundary conditions. Damaged particles are considered as ghost particles which do not interact with any other particles. Blue particles correspond to gas phase. = 6.8 s.