Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Genetics Research International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 275802, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/275802
Review Article

Molecular Alterations in Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

1Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
3Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Porto, 4099-003 Porto, Portugal
4Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto (FMUP), 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
5Cancer Biology Group, IPATIMUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

Received 15 April 2011; Revised 3 July 2011; Accepted 11 July 2011

Academic Editor: Ilana Zalcberg Renault

Copyright © 2011 Maria Inês Alvelos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Hiller-Sturmhöfel and A. Bartke, “The endocrine system: an overview,” Alcohol Research and Health, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 153–164, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Mihai and J. R. Farndon, “Parathyroid disease and calcium metabolism,” The British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 29–43, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. N. Hendy, “Molecular mechanisms of primary hyperparathyroidism,” Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 297–305, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. W. Suliburk and N. D. Perrier, “Primary hyperparathyroidism,” The Oncologist, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 644–653, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. W. Norman and S. Hurwitz, “The role of the vitamin D endocrine system in avian bone biology,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 123, supplement 2, pp. 310–316, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Miedlich, K. Krohn, and R. Paschke, “Update on genetic and clinical aspects of primary hyperparathyroidism,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 539–554, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. D. Taniegra, “Hyperparathyroidism,” The American Family Physician, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 333–339, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Ippolito, F. F. Palazzo, F. Sebag, and J. F. Henry, “Long-term follow-up after parathyroidectomy for radiation-induced hyperparathyroidism,” Surgery, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 819–822, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. Westin, P. Björklund, and G. Åkerström, “Molecular genetics of parathyroid disease,” The World Journal of Surgery, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2224–2233, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. A. DeLellis, P. Mazzaglia, and S. Mangray, “Primary hyperparathyroidism: a current perspective,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 132, no. 8, pp. 1251–1262, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Uchino, S. Noguchi, M. Sato et al., “Screening of the MEN1 gene and discovery of germ-line and somatic mutations in apparently sporadic parathyroid tumors,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 19, pp. 5553–5557, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Tominaga, T. Tsuzuki, K. Uchida et al., “Expression of PRAD1/cyclin D1, retinoblastoma gene products, and Ki67 in parathyroid hyperplasia caused by chronic renal failure versus primary adenoma,” Kidney International, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1375–1383, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. D. Carpten, C. M. Robbins, A. Villablanca et al., “HRPT2, encoding parafibromin, is mutated in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome,” Nature Genetics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 676–680, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Lemmens, J. M. Van De Ven Wim, K. Kas et al., “Identification of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1177–1183, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Heppner, M. B. Kester, S. K. Agarwal et al., “Somatic mutation of the MEN1 gene in parathyroid tumours,” Nature Genetics, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 375–378, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. C. Guru, J. S. Crabtree, K. D. Brown et al., “Isolation, genomic organization, and expression analysis of Men1, the murine homolog of the MEN1 gene,” Mammalian Genome, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 592–596, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Khodaei-O'Brien, B. Zablewska, M. Fromaget, L. Bylund, G. Weber, and P. Gaudray, “Heterogeneity at the 5'-end of MEN1 transcripts,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 276, no. 2, pp. 508–514, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. C. Guru, N. B. Prasad, E. J. Shin et al., “Characterization of a MEN1 ortholog from Drosophila melanogaster,” Gene, vol. 263, no. 1-2, pp. 31–38, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. A. Pannett and R. V. Thakker, “Somatic mutations in MEN type 1 tumors, consistent with the Knudson “two-hit” hypothesis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 4371–4374, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. C. Lemos and R. V. Thakker, “Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): analysis of 1336 mutations reported in the first decade following identification of the gene,” Human Mutation, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 22–32, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Z. Zhuang, A. O. Vortmeyer, S. Pack et al., “Somatic mutations of the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene in sporadic gastrinomas and insulinomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 21, pp. 4682–4686, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. V. Debelenko, E. Brambilla, S. K. Agarwal et al., “Identification of MEN1 gene mutations in sporadic carcinoid tumors of the lung,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 2285–2290, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. Zhuang, S. Z. Ezzat, A. O. Vortmeyer et al., “Mutations of the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene in pituitary tumors,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 24, pp. 5446–5451, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. M. Rubin, M. D. Yandell, J. R. Wortman et al., “Comparative genomics of the eukaryotes,” Science, vol. 287, no. 5461, pp. 2204–2215, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. La, A. Desmond, Z. Hou, A. C. Silva, R. W. Schnepp, and X. Hua, “Tumor suppressor menin: the essential role of nuclear localization signal domains in coordinating gene expression,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 25, pp. 3537–3546, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Tsukada, Y. Nagamura, and N. Ohkura, “MEN1 gene and its mutations: basic and clinical implications,” Cancer Science, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 209–215, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. M. Dreijerink, R. A. Varier, O. Van Beekum et al., “The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) tumor suppressor regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent adipocyte differentiation,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 5060–5069, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Wang, A. Ozawa, S. Zaman et al., “The tumor suppressor protein menin inhibits AKT activation by regulating its cellular localization,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 371–382, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. K. Agarwal, S. C. Guru, C. Heppner et al., “Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription,” Cell, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 143–152, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. A. Milne, C. M. Hughes, R. Lloyd et al., “Menin and MLL cooperatively regulate expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 749–754, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Arnold, H. G. Kim, R. D. Gaz et al., “Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of DNA rearranged with the parathyroid hormone gene in a parathyroid adenoma,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 2034–2040, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. D. Hsi, L. R. Zukerberg, W. I. Yang, and A. Arnold, “Cyclin D1/PRAD1 expression in parathyroid adenomas: an immunohistochemical study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1736–1739, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Imanishi, Y. Hosokawa, K. Yoshimoto et al., “Primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid-targeted overexpression of cyclin d1 in transgenic mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 9, pp. 1093–1102, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. M. Mallya, J. J. Gallagher, Y. K. Wild et al., “Abnormal parathyroid cell proliferation precedes biochemical abnormalities in a mouse model of primary hyperparathyroidism,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2603–2609, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. O. Rozenblatt-Rosen, C. M. Hughes, S. J. Nannepaga et al., “The parafibromin tumor suppressor protein is part of a human Paf1 complex,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Chaudhary, S. Deb, N. Moniaux, M. P. Ponnusamy, and S. K. Batra, “Human RNA polymerase II-associated factor complex: dysregulation in cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 54, pp. 7499–7507, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Lin, M. Czapiga, L. Nini, J. H. Zhang, and W. F. Simonds, “Nuclear localization of the parafibromin tumor suppressor protein implicated in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome enhances its proapoptotic function,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 183–193, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Zhang, D. Kong, M. H. Tan et al., “Parafibromin inhibits cancer cell growth and causes G1 phase arrest,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 350, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. Mosimann, G. Hausmann, and K. Basler, “Parafibromin/Hyrax activates Wnt/Wg target gene transcription by direct association with beta-catenin/Armadillo,” Cell, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 327–341, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Wang, M. R. Bowl, S. Bender et al., “Parafibromin, a component of the human PAF complex, regulates growth factors and is required for embryonic development and survival in adult mice,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2930–2940, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. F. Cetani, E. Ambrogini, P. Viacava et al., “Should parafibromin staining replace HRTP2 gene analysis as an additional tool for histologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma?” The European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 547–554, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. H. Tan, C. Morrison, P. Wang et al., “Loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity is a distinguishing feature of parathyroid carcinoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 19, pp. 6629–6637, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Juhlin, C. Larsson, T. Yakoleva et al., “Loss of parafibromin expression in a subset of parathyroid adenomas,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 509–523, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. J. Gill, A. Clarkson, O. Gimm et al., “Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias,” The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1140–1149, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. C. Juhlin and A. Höög, “Parafibromin as a diagnostic instrument for parathyroid carcinoma-lone ranger or part of the posse?” International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2010, Article ID 324964, 5 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. V. M. Howell, A. Gill, A. Clarkson et al., “Accuracy of combined protein gene product 9.5 and parafibromin markers for immunohistochemical diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 434–441, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. C. Juhlin, F. Haglund, A. Villablanca et al., “Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 481–492, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Uchino, S. Noguchi, M. Nagatomo et al., “Absence of somatic RET gene mutation in sporadic parathyroid tumors and hyperplasia secondary to uremia, and absence of somatic MEN1 gene mutation in MEN2A-associated hyperplasia,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 54, supplement 1, pp. 100s–103s, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. Y. Hosokawa, M. R. Pollak, E. M. Brown, and A. Arnold, “Mutational analysis of the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor gene in human parathyroid tumors,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 3107–3110, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Miedlich, K. Krohn, P. Lamesch, A. Müller, and R. Paschke, “Frequency of somatic MEN1 gene mutations in monoclonal parathyroid tumours of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism,” The European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. M. Bhuiyan, M. Sato, K. Murao, H. Imachi, H. Namihira, and J. Takahara, “Expression of menin in parathyroid tumors,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 2615–2619, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. J. Haven, M. Van Puijenbroek, M. H. Tan et al., “Identification of MEN1 and HRPT2 somatic mutations in paraffin-embedded (sporadic) parathyroid carcinomas,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 370–376, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Arnold, T. M. Shattuck, S. M. Mallya et al., “Molecular pathogenesis of primary hyperparathyroidism,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 17, supplement 2, pp. N30–N36, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. M. Mallya and A. Arnold, “Cyclin D1 in parathyroid disease,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 5, pp. D367–D371, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. A. Vasef, R. K. Brynes, M. Sturm, C. Bromley, and R. A. Robinson, “Expression of cyclin D1 in parathyroid carcinomas, adenomas, and hyperplasias: a paraffin immunohistochemical study,” Modern Pathology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 412–416, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. F. Cetani, E. Pardi, S. Borsari et al., “Genetic analyses of the HRPT2 gene in primary hyperparathyroidism: germline and somatic mutations in familial and sporadic parathyroid tumors,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 5583–5591, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. M. Shattuck, S. Välimäki, T. Obara et al., “Somatic and germ-line mutations of the HRPT2 gene in sporadic parathyroid carcinoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 18, pp. 1722–1729, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. J. Krebs, T. M. Shattuck, and A. Arnold, “HRPT2 mutational analysis of typical sporadic parathyroid adenomas,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 9, pp. 5015–5017, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. E. Witteveen, N. A. Hamdy, O. M. Dekkers et al., “Downregulation of CASR expression and global loss of parafibromin staining are strong negative determinants of prognosis in parathyroid carcinoma,” Modern Pathology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 688–697, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. C. J. Haven, M. van Puijenbroek, M. Karperien, G. J. Fleuren, and H. Morreau, “Differential expression of the calcium sensing receptor and combined loss of chromosomes 1q and 11q in parathyroid carcinoma,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 86–94, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. Corbetta, G. Mantovani, A. Lania et al., “Calcium-sensing receptor expression and signalling in human parathyroid adenomas and primary hyperplasia,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 339–348, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. H. Samander and A. Arnold, “Mutational analysis of the vitamin D receptor does not support its candidacy as a tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid adenomas,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 5019–5021, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Lauter and A. Arnold, “Analysis of CYP27B1, encoding 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in primary and severe secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 102–104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Kremer, I. Bolivar, D. Goltzman, and G. N. Hendy, “Influence of calcium and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on proliferation and proto-oncogene expression in primary cultures of bovine parathyroid cells,” Endocrinology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 935–941, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Szabo, J. Merke, E. Beier, G. Mall, and E. Ritz, “1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 inhibits parathyroid cell proliferation in experimental uremia,” Kidney International, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1049–1056, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. Björklund, D. Lindberg, G. Åkerström, and G. Westin, “Stabilizing mutation of CTNNB1/beta-catenin and protein accumulation analyzed in a large series of parathyroid tumors of Swedish patients,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 7, article 53, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. F. Cetani, E. Pardi, C. Banti et al., “Beta-catenin activation is not involved in sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. P. Björklund, G. Åkerström, and G. Westin, “An LRP5 receptor with internal deletion in hyperparathyroid tumors with implications for deregulated WNT/beta-catenin signaling,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, no. 11, article e328, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. F. Starker, A. Delgado-Verdugo, R. Udelsman, P. Björklund, and T. Carling, “Expression and somatic mutations of SDHAF2 (SDH5), a novel endocrine tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism,” Endocrine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 397–401, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. Palanisamy, Y. Imanishi, P. H. Rao, H. Tahara, R. S. K. Chaganti, and A. Arnold, “Novel chromosomal abnormalities identified by comparative genomic hybridization in parathyroid adenomas,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 1766–1770, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. K. Agarwal, E. Schröck, M. B. Kester et al., “Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of human parathyroid tumors,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. L. García, J. C. Tardío, N. C. Gutiérrez et al., “Chromosomal imbalances identified by comparative genomic hybridization in sporadic parathyroid adenomas,” The European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 209–213, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Corbetta, V. Vaira, V. Guarnieri et al., “Differential expression of microRNAs in human parathyroid carcinomas compared with normal parathyroid tissue,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 135–146, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. Würdinger, B. A. Tannous, O. Saydam et al., “miR-296 regulates growth factor receptor overexpression in angiogenic endothelial cells,” Cancer Cell, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 382–393, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Visone, L. Russo, P. Pallante et al., “MicroRNAs (miR)-221 and miR-222, both overexpressed in human thyroid papillary carcinomas, regulate p27Kip1 protein levels and cell cycle,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 791–798, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. J. Newey, M. R. Bowl, T. Cranston, and R. V. Thakker, “Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog (CDC73) mutations in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) and parathyroid tumors,” Human Mutation, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 295–307, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. L. Giusti, F. Cetani, F. Ciregia et al., “A proteomic approach to study parathyroid glands,” Molecular BioSystems, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 687–699, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. C. J. Haven, V. M. Howell, P. H. C. Eilers et al., “Gene expression of parathyroid tumors: molecular subclassification and identification of the potential malignant phenotype,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 20, pp. 7405–7411, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus