Serum Exosomes Derived from Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patient Increase Cell Permeability via Regulating miR-148b-5p/RGS2 Signaling in Human Colonic Epithelium CellsRead the full article
Gastroenterology Research and Practice provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers.
Chief Editor, Dr Kahaleh’s research is focused on interventional endoscopy and the use of new devices to diagnose and treat biliary and pancreatic diseases primarily focusing on preventing and treating complications of advanced endoscopic procedures.
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The Neutrophil-to-Monocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-White Blood Cell Ratio Represent Novel Prognostic Markers in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer
Background. Inflammation plays an important role in the development of tumors. Several serum based-markers and ratios have been investigated for their prognostic value in pancreatic cancer. However, the prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio (NMR) and platelet-to-white blood cell ratio (PWR) for patients with pancreatic cancer has scarcely been investigated. Methods. From October 2013 to November 2018, a retrospective cohort study was performed on 269 pancreatic cancer patients without treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated, and areas under the curve were compared for the evaluation of the discriminatory ability of inflammation-based prognostic scoring systems. Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazard model were employed to analyze the relationships among NMR, PWR, and overall survival (OS). Results. The optimal cutoff values of NMR and PWR were 48 and 6, respectively. In univariate analysis, the survival time of and was shorter than that of and in patients with pancreatic cancer (). In Cox univariate and multivariate analyses, NMR (hazard ratio (HR), 9.095; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.64–22.72; ) and PWR (HR, 8.230; 95% CI, 3.32–20.43; ) were significantly correlated with OS. Conclusions. The current study demonstrated that NMR and PWR may serve as novel and promising inflammatory prognostic scores for patients with pancreatic cancer. Elevated NMR (>48) and depressed PWR (<6) were independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Effect of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy on Thrombocytopenic Patients with Hepatitis C Virus-Related Chronic Liver Disease
Background and Aims. Thrombocytopenia is a common complication in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) that increases the risk of bleeding. We aimed to analyze the hematologic effects of the new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, particularly on the platelet count in chronic HCV-infected patients with thrombocytopenia. Patients and Methods. One hundred thrombocytopenic patients chronically infected with HCV were included in a prospective study. All patients were eligible for receiving anti-HCV treatment with sofosbuvir-based regimens for 12 weeks, according to the protocol of the National Program for treatment of HCV in Egypt sponsored by the Ministry of Health. Results. At the end of treatment (EOT), there was a highly significant increase in platelet count (), a significant increase in white blood cells (WBCs) count (), and a highly significant decrease in hemoglobin level () as compared to pretreatment levels. Patients with mild to moderate hepatic fibrosis had significantly higher median and interquartile range (IQR) platelet count at baseline and EOT than those with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis ( and , respectively). There was more elevation in platelet count at EOT in patients with mild to moderate fibrosis than those with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Out of the hundred patients, 73% showed improvement of platelet count, while 27% showed no improvement or even decrease in the platelet count. Conclusion. Sofosbuvir-based DAA therapy is a highly effective and safe treatment regimen that results in the improvement of platelet count in thrombocytopenic patients, particularly in mild to moderate stages of hepatic fibrosis.
Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Gallbladder: A Clinicopathological Analysis of 13 Patients and a Review of the Literature
Objectives. Mixed neuroendocrine–non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs) are rare gallbladder neuroendocrine neoplasms (GB-NENs). This study is aimed at investigating the clinicopathological features of GB-NENs and identifying prognostic factors related to overall survival (OS) of GB-MiNENs. Methods. The clinical data and pathological features of 13 patients with GB-NENs in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Additionally, 41 GB-MiNENs cases reported in English literature were reviewed and survival analysis was performed. Results. The mean age of thirteen patients (6 males and 7 females) with GB-NENs was 57.2 years (range: 35-75 years). Two patients were diagnosed with NET grade 1 (G1), two patients with NEC (), and nine patients with MiNENs. Of these 9 patients with MiNENs, 8 had composite tumors and 1 had amphicrine carcinoma. Microscopically, the adenocarcinoma component was located in the surface mucosa, and the neuroendocrine component was in the area of deep invasion, liver infiltration, and lymph node metastasis. Total analysis of 41 GB-MiNENs showed that patients were mainly elderly women (female/male ratio, 2.4 : 1.0; median age, 60 years). Kaplan-Meier’s analysis demonstrated that liver metastasis and TNM stage III-IV were associated with decreased OS (), whereas age, sex, tumor size, grade of the neuroendocrine component, lymph node metastasis, and adjuvant chemotherapy were not significantly prognostic indicators of OS. Multivariate analysis identified liver metastasis (, , ) as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor. Conclusions. GB-MiNENs were the most common type of GB-NENs in our case series, and neuroendocrine components exhibited more aggressive lymph node metastasis and local invasion than adenocarcinoma. Liver metastasis was a poor prognostic indicator in GB-MiNENs patients.
Primary Needle-Knife Sphincterotomy for Biliary Access in Patients at High Risk of Post-Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis
Background and Aim. Needle-knife sphincterotomy (NKS) is currently recommended as the second option in cases of difficult cannulation due to its potential higher adverse event rate. However, the clinical outcomes of NKS have not been evaluated as thoroughly as those of the primary cannulation technique. The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of NKS when used for primary access in patients at high risk of developing postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). Methods. Forty patients with one or more risk factors for PEP were prospectively enrolled between June 2018 and November 2019. The cannulation was conducted in all patients using NKS as the primary cannulation technique. Success rate of biliary cannulation, biliary cannulation time, and adverse event rate were assessed. Results. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 34 patients underwent primary NKS after the screening. Nine patients had 1 risk factor for PEP, 7 had 2, 8 had 3, 7 had 4, and 3 had 5. The success rate of biliary access by NKS was 94.1% (32/34). The median procedure time for NKS and the total procedure time for stone removal or biliary drainage were 4.1 minutes (range, 0.5-25.2) and 11.3 minutes (range, 3.8–40.4), respectively. Adverse events occurred in two patients (minor bleeding, ; hyperamylasemia, ). No patient experienced PEP or perforation. Conclusion. NKS might be feasible as a primary cannulation procedure in patients at high risk of PEP. This trial is registered with KCT0004886 (03/06/2018).
Small Incision Combined with Nephroscope Operation in the Treatment of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis: A Single-Center Experience of 37 Patients
Objective. To explore the safety and efficacy of small incision combined with nephroscope surgery in the treatment of infectious pancreatic necrosis. Methods. A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 37 patients with infectious pancreatic necrosis who underwent small incision combined with nephroscopy in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital from January 2018 to December 2019. Results. All 37 patients successfully completed small incision combined nephroscope surgery. The median time from the onset to the operation of all patients was 38 days (range: 29-80 days), and the hospital stay was 19 days (range: 3-95 days). The median number of drainage tubes placed during the operation was 4 (range: 2-8). According to the different surgical approaches, 13 cases were through the retroperitoneal approach, 11 cases were through the omental sac approach, 2 cases were through the intercostal approach, and 11 cases were combined approach. The operation time was min, and intraoperative bleeding was ml. The incidence of complications (Clavien-Dindo grade 3 and above) was 5.4%. Among them, 2 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to postoperative bleeding, 1 case was cured by conservative treatment, and 1 case was cured by interventional treatment. During the follow-up period, 2 patients developed colonic fistula at 2 weeks after operation, and 2 patients developed gastric fistula at 1 week and 3 weeks after operation; all were cured by conservative treatment. Conclusion. Small incision combined with nephroscope surgery is an effective treatment for patients with infectious pancreatic necrosis by removing necrotic tissue, unobstructed drainage, and reducing complications.
Clinical Evaluation of Acute Pancreatitis Caused by SARS-CoV-2 Virus Infection
Introduction. Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread to more than 200 countries worldwide. We aimed to present acute pancreatitis (AP) cases caused by SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. Methods. The study was conducted retrospectively between April 2020 and June 2020 in Necmettin Erbakan University Meram, Medical Faculty Hospital, and 150 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. The degree of acute pancreatitis was determined according to the Atlanta classification. Organ failures of the patients were evaluated in terms of respiratory, cardiovascular, and nephrology according to the modified Marshall scoring (MMS) system, and CTSI (Balthazar score) and Imrie score were determined. was considered organ failure. Results. A total of 29 patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. All 29 patients with pancreatitis had respiratory failure during hospitalization. After the diagnosis of pancreatitis, there was no change in respiratory failure. According to the Atlanta classification, 19 patients had mild AP and 10 patients had moderate AP. Patients with acute pancreatitis were scored according to the CTSI (Balthazar score), and there were no patients with ≥6 severe pancreatitis. The CTSI score of 4 patients was 3. In addition, the Imrie score of the patients was determined and 8 patients with were identified. Conclusion. The rate of pancreatic damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be 19% () in our study. In our study, we highlight acute pancreatitis as a complication associated with COVID-19 and the importance of pancreatic evaluation in patients with COVID-19 and abdominal pain is demonstrated.