Silencing of Long Noncoding RNA LINC00324 Interacts with MicroRNA-3200-5p to Attenuate the Tumorigenesis of Gastric Cancer via Regulating BCAT1Read the full article
Gastroenterology Research and Practice provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers.
Chief Editor, Dr Kahaleh’s research is focused on interventional endoscopy and the use of new devices to diagnose and treat biliary and pancreatic diseases primarily focusing on preventing and treating complications of advanced endoscopic procedures.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in Pregnant Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: A Retrospective Observational Case Series Study
Background and Aims. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is common in patients with end-stage liver disease and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) related cirrhosis. To date, no uniform definition and management strategy are available for ACLF. Although a considerable number of studies on ACLF has been published, there are few reports on ACLF in pregnant women with CHB. This study retrospectively reviewed five patients who were diagnosed with ACLF during pregnancy in the past 10 years. We aimed at investigating their clinical characteristics, treatment, biochemical test results, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Results. Asthenia, anorexia, and jaundice were the main initial clinical manifestations in these patients during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. All patients received antiviral therapy. None of the pregnant women died after treatment. Patient #4 was treated with an artificial liver support system, and patients #2 and #5 underwent transfusion therapy. The acute insult in all patients was HBV DNA reactivation. Except for patient #3, who chose an actively induced vaginal delivery because of intrauterine fetal demise, the remaining four patients underwent a preterm delivery via a cesarean section. The four neonates were alive, although all were small for gestational age. Conclusion. Asthenia, anorexia, and jaundice during mid-late pregnancy should be immediately investigated. Before and during the pregnancy, hepatologists or obstetricians should actively screen pregnant women with CHB for HBV DNA status and alanine aminotransferase levels. Reactivation of HBV replication in pregnant women with CHB may lead to ACLF, especially in multiparous women. Once ACLF is diagnosed, antiviral therapy should be considered as soon as possible to protect maternal and fetal health.
Small-Bowel Lesions in Patients Taking Direct Oral Anticoagulants Detected Using Capsule Endoscopy
Background and Aim. Direct oral anticoagulant- (DOAC-) induced small-bowel lesions have not been described. We evaluated small-bowel lesions related to DOAC using video capsule endoscopy (VCE). Methods. This study was a prospective, open-label, nonblinded, multicenter, and observational study. From September 2013 to March 2017, patients taking DOACs were enrolled. Patients underwent VCE. The type and location of small-bowel lesions were registered. Also, (1) the proportion of lesions detected between types of DOAC was evaluated and (2) the hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin levels were compared between patients with and without small-bowel lesions. Results. 33 patients were enrolled, but 4 patients withdrew their consent, and VCE was performed on 29 patients. Eight, 13, and 8 patients received dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, respectively. Small-bowel transit was complete in 27 of 29 patients (93.1%). Small-bowel lesions were detected in 23 (79.3%), redness in 12 (41.4%), erosions in 14 (48.3%), and angioectasia in 3 (10.3%) patients, and 6 patients (20.7%) had no abnormalities. Redness and erosions were detected in the upper, middle, or lower portions, but erosions tended to be less frequent in the middle portion (, 0.06). Angioectasia was not detected in the lower portion. No patients had active bleeding. The findings did not differ according to the drug. The relationships between the endoscopic findings and the Hb and serum ferritin levels were not significant. Conclusion. Many patients taking DOACs had small-bowel lesions; however, most lesions were relatively mild. Observing small-bowel lesions over longer periods may be necessary in patients taking DOACs. This trial is registered with UMIN000011527.
Feasibility and Safely of Oral Rehydration Therapy before Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection
Background/Aims. Preoperative oral rehydration therapy (PORT), often used before surgery, is rarely performed before endoscopy. Only a few reports of PORT before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy are available. This study is aimed at evaluating the safety and feasibility of PORT before upper gastrointestinal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Methods. We used alginade water (125 mL, Nestle Co., Kobe, Japan) for PORT. Alginade water is a flavored sports drink, which is palatable and promotes wound healing due to a high concentration of alginate. We conducted a single-center single-arm prospective feasibility study of PORT in 244 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal ESD. The group wherein PORT was administered up to two hours before ESD () was compared with the historical control group (non-PORT group, ). We investigated the total fluid intake, hematocrit change, complications due to PORT, complications during ESD, ESD procedure time, and length of hospital stay in each group. Results. The average fluid intake in the PORT group was 462.6 mL. No complications were observed due to PORT and ESD, and significant differences in the ESD procedure time or hospital stay was not noted. Conclusion. PORT up to two hours before upper gastrointestinal ESD is feasible.
Daily Usage of Proton Pump Inhibitors May Reduce the Severity of Critical Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Elderly Patients
Introduction. We retrospectively examined the relationship between daily proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and severity of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), mainly in the elderly. Methods. We included 97 patients with nonvariceal UGIB diagnosed at our hospital from January 2012 to October 2017. Bleeding severity was assessed using the shock index (SI) and estimated bleeding volume; 49 patients met the criterion for the mild group and 48 for the moderate/severe group. The effect of PPI use on bleeding severity was compared between the groups. The relationships of PPI use and dose with the clinical symptoms of UGIB were also analyzed. Results. Among the 97 patients, 17 (17.5%) habitually used PPIs. The rate of habitual PPI use was significantly higher in the mild group, indicating as an independent factor contributing to a reduction in the severity of UGIB in a multiple logistic regression analysis (30.6% vs. 4.2%; OR 10.147; 95% CI 2.174–47.358, ). When analyzing data for a subgroup of patients older than 75 years, we found the protective PPI effect to be even higher in the mild UGIB group than in the moderate/severe group (37.0% vs. 5.6%; OR 10.000; 95% CI 1.150–86.951, ). Conversely, we found no association between PPI prescription and UGIB symptoms in patients younger than 75 years. The mean estimated bleeding volume and SI in the 17 habitual PPI users were both significantly less than those among the 80 nonhabitual users, respectively (). The proportion of patients with mild UGIB was similar between the low- and high-dose PPI users. Conclusions. Particularly in elderly patients with nonvariceal UGIB, habitual PPI use can alleviate the clinical symptoms of UGIB by suppressing the volume of bleeding, regardless of the adapted dose of PPIs.
Diagnostic Value of Plasma miR-181b, miR-196a, and miR-210 Combination in Pancreatic Cancer
Purpose. This study was aimed at investigating the roles of plasma miR-181b, miR-196a, and miR-210 in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods. Plasma samples were isolated from 40 patients with PC and 40 healthy individuals, respectively. The expression of miR-181b, miR-196a, and miR-210 was detected by qRT-PCR. The level of carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) was measured by an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic value of miR-181b, miR-196a, miR-210, CA199, and their combinations in PC. Results. The expression of plasma miR-181b, miR-196a, and miR-210 was significantly upregulated in PC patients. The plasma level of CA199 was also significantly increased in PC patients. The expression of miR-181b, miR-196a, and miR-210 was closely associated with lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and vascular invasion but not correlated with age, gender, and tumor size. miR-181b, miR-196a, and miR-210 have lower AUC than CA199 in the diagnosis of PC. miR-181b+miR-210 and miR-196a+miR-210 also have lower AUC than CA199. It is worth noting that miR-181b+miR-196a+miR-210 has a higher AUC than CA199 in the diagnosis of PC. Conclusion. The combination of plasma miR-181b, miR-196a, and miR-210 had a good diagnostic value for PC.
Half-Elemental Diet Shifts the Human Intestinal Bacterial Compositions and Metabolites: A Pilot Study with Healthy Individuals
Background and Aim. Half-elemental diet (ED) (900 kcal/day of ED) has clinical efficacy to treat Crohn’s disease (CD). However, the underlying mechanisms of how the ED exerts its efficacy remain unclear. Alterations of the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis, have been reported to play a role in CD pathogenesis. Many variables including diet affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that half-ED has the potential to change the gut microbiota composition and functions leading to anti-inflammatory actions. Given that inflammation can be a confounding factor affecting the intestinal microbiota, we aimed to test our hypothesis among healthy individuals in this pilot study. Methods. This prospective study included four healthy volunteers. The subjects continued their dietary habits for 2 weeks after the registration of the study and then started half-ED replacing 900 kcal of the regular diet with ED (time point 1, T1). The subjects continued half-ED for 2 weeks (T2). After the withdrawal of ED, subjects resumed their original dietary habits for 2 weeks (T3). Fecal samples were collected from all subjects at all time points, T1-3. Fecal DNA and metabolites were extracted from the samples. We performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metabolomic analysis to examine the bacterial compositions and intestinal metabolites. Results. There were differences in the gut bacterial compositions and metabolites at each time point as well as overtime changing patterns between subjects. Several bacteria and metabolites including short-chain fatty acids and bile acids altered significantly across the subjects. The bacterial membership and intestinal metabolites at T3 were different from T1 in all subjects. Conclusions. Half-ED shifts the gut bacterial compositions and metabolites. The changes varied with each individual, while some microbes and metabolites change commonly across individuals. The impact of half-ED may persist even after the withdrawal. This trial is registered with UMIN ID: 000031920.