Patients with Multiple Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs) Show Increased Illness Severity: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care FGID Specialty ClinicRead the full article
Gastroenterology Research and Practice provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers.
Chief Editor, Dr Kahaleh’s research is focused on interventional endoscopy and the use of new devices to diagnose and treat biliary and pancreatic diseases primarily focusing on preventing and treating complications of advanced endoscopic procedures.
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Height of Rectal Cancer: A Comparison between Rectoscopic and Different MRI Measurements
Purpose. To compare rigid rectoscopy with three different MRI measurement techniques for rectal cancer height determination, all starting at the anal verge, in order to evaluate whether MRI measurements starting from the anal verge could be an alternative to rigid rectoscopy. Moreover, potential cut-off values for MRI in categorizing tumor height measurements were evaluated. Methods. In this retrospective study, 106 patients (75 men, 31 female, ) with primary rectal cancer underwent rigid rectoscopy as well as MR imaging. Three different measurements (MRI1–3) in T2w sagittal scans were used to evaluate the exact distance from the anal verge (AV) to the distal ending of the tumor (MRI1: two unbowed lines, AV to the upper ending of the anal canal and upper ending of the anal canal to the lower border of the tumor; MRI2: one straight line from the AV to the lower boarder of the tumor; MRI3: a curved line beginning at the AV and following the course of the rectum wall ending at the lower border of the tumor). Furthermore, agreement between the gold standard rigid rectoscopy (UICC classification: low part, 0-6 cm; mid part, 6-12 cm; and high part, >12 cm) and each MRI measuring technique was analyzed. Results. Only a fair correlation in terms of individual measures between rectoscopy and all 3 MRI measurement techniques was shown. The proposed new cut-off values utilizing ROC analysis for the three different MRI beginning at the anal verge were low 0-7.7 cm, mid 7.7-13.3 cm, and (MRI1); low 0-7.4 cm, mid 7.4-11.2 cm, and (MRI2); and low 0-7.1 cm, mid 7.1-13.7 cm, and (MRI3). For MRI1 and MRI3, the agreement to the gold standard was substantial (, , respectively). Conclusion. This study illustrates that MRI1 and MRI3 measures can be interchangeably used as a valid method to determine tumor height compared to the gold standard rigid rectoscopy.
Immune Response in H. pylori-Associated Gastritis and Gastric Cancer
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the dominant member of the gastric microbiota and has infected more than half of the human population, of whom 5–15% develop gastric diseases ranging from gastritis and metaplasia to gastric cancer. These diseases always follow inflammation induced by cell surface and intracellular receptors and subsequent signaling, such as the NF-κB pathway and inflammasomes. Some types of immune cells are recruited to enforce an antibacterial response, which could be impeded by H. pylori virulence factors with or without a specific immune cell. Following decreased inflammation, neoplasm may appear with a little immune surveillance and may inhibit antitumor immunity. Therefore, the balance between H. pylori-associated inflammation and anti-inflammation is crucial for human health and remains to be determined. Here, we discuss multiple inflammation and immunoregulatory cells in gastritis and summarize the main immune evasion strategies employed by gastric cancer.
Establishment and Verification of Synchronous Metastatic Nomogram for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs): A Population-Based Analysis
Aim. Assess the risk of synchronous metastasis and establish a nomogram in patients with GISTs. Methods. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2014) was accessed. With the logistic regression model as the basis, a nomogram was constructed. Results. 7,256 target patients were contained in our study. The nomogram discrimination for mGIST prediction revealed that tumor size contributed most to synchronous metastasis, followed by lymph nodes, extension, pathologic grade, tumor location, and mitotic count. -index values of predictions were 0.821 (95% CI, 0.805-0.836) and 0.815 (95% CI, 0.800-0.831), and Brier score were 0.109 and 0.112 in training and validation group, respectively. The value of area under the ROCs were 0.813 () in the primary cohort and 0.819 () in the validation cohort. Through the calibration curves (as seen in the figures), nomogram prediction proved to have excellent agreement with actual metastatic diseases. Conclusion. A new nomogram was created that can evaluate synchronous metastatic diseases in patients with GISTs.
Association of Genetic Polymorphisms in FOXA1 with the Progression of Genetic Susceptibility to Gastric Cancer
Objective. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of FOXA1 gene rs12894364 and rs7144658 and susceptibility to gastric cancer. Methods. A case-control study was conducted to select 577 cases of primary gastric cancer and 678 cases of normal control. We extracted whole blood genomic DNA and amplified the target gene fragment by PCR. The genotyping and allele was tested through a snapshot method. Results. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of genotype between the case group and control group (). Stratified analyses showed the SNPs were not correlated with the susceptibility of GC according to different age, gender, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking status. Conclusion. There is no significant correlation between the polymorphisms of FOXA1 gene rs12894364 and rs7144658 and the risk of gastric cancer.
Prevalence of Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase by Diagnostic Criterion, Age, and Gender among Adolescents
Background. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured not only to detect liver disease, but also to monitor overall health. The purpose of this study was to obtain the prevalence of elevated ALT levels among adolescents. Methods. In a school-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample was analyzed from 9 middle and high schools in Shenzhen, China, during 2017 to 2018. Elevated ALT was defined as diagnostic criterion I (>30 U/L for boys and >19 U/L for girls) and diagnostic criterion II (>40 U/L). Results. From the adolescent population, a total of 7281 students (boys, 4014, and girls, 3267) aged from 10 to 17 years were collected. The prevalence of elevated ALT was 7.11% (6.88% for boys and 7.41% for girls) by criterion I and 2.72% (3.96% for boys and 1.19% for girls) by criterion II. Based on the Shenzhen census and Chinese national census population, the adjusted prevalence of elevated ALT was 7.65% (boys 7.19% and girls 8.21%) and 6.79% (boys 6.07% and girls 7.56%) by criterion I and 2.85% (boys 4.20% and girls 1.16%) and 2.43% (boys 3.49% and girls 1.29%) by criterion II. For age, the overall trends were increasing progressively, regardless of the use of diagnostic criteria for an elevated ALT activity. Conclusions. This study supplements the gap that the prevalence of elevated ALT levels differed in gender, age, and criteria among adolescents of Shenzhen. We should take the prevalence as a predictor and continue to play a warning and preventive role in preparation for further intervention.
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection in North Urban Chinese: A Retrospective Study
Background. The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to clarify the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection and the relationship between NAFLD and H. pylori infection in north urban Chinese. Methods. The retrospective study was performed at Aerospace Center Hospital in Beijing. All subjects in this study were a healthy population who underwent health examinations at the hospital between 2012 and 2015. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the association between NAFLD and H. pylori infection. Age, gender, underlying diseases, and metabolic syndrome (MS) were adjusted. Effects of NAFLD on H. pylori infection in a different age, gender, and number of MS characteristic subgroups were analyzed. Results. There were 7803 (43.4%) subjects with H. pylori infection, 3726 (20.7%) with mild NAFLD, 730 (4.1%) with moderate NAFLD, and 369 (2.1%) with severe NAFLD among 17971 subjects. H. pylori infection was related to the seroprevalence of any level of NAFLD, including mild, moderate, and severe NAFLD (, 95% CI: 1.487-1.736; , 95% CI: 1.519-2.063; and , 95% CI: 1.714-2.526, respectively). The results of subgroup analysis showed that the risk of incident NAFLD from H. pylori infection had significant interactions by subjects with or without MS characteristics. Moreover, as the number of MS characteristics in patients with a fatty liver increased, the risk of H. pylori infection also increased. Conclusions. NAFLD may be associated with H. pylori infection in a Chinese population. Younger, male NAFLD patients and those meeting more characteristics of MS were more likely to have H. pylori infection.