Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2009, Article ID 285830, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/285830
Research Article

Differences in Protein Expression and Gene Amplification of Cyclins between Colon and Rectal Adenocarcinomas

1Faculty Division Akershus University Hospital, University of Oslo, 1474 Nordbyhagen, Norway
2Department of Surgery, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Loerenskog, Norway
3EpiGen, Faculty Division Akershus University Hospital, University of Oslo, 1478 Loerenskog, Norway
4Department of Pathology, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Loerenskog, Norway
5Department of Health Promotion, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Loerenskog, Norway

Received 22 June 2009; Accepted 23 September 2009

Academic Editor: Bjørn Moum

Copyright © 2009 Rolf Aamodt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Aamodt, J. Bondi, S. N. Andersen, G. Bukholm, and I. R. K. Bukholm, “Expression of nuclear beta-catenin in rectal versus colonic cancers,” The Open Clinical Cancer Journal, vol. 2, pp. 13–17, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. J. Sherr, “G1 phase progression: cycling on cue,” Cell, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 551–555, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. K. Assoian and X. Zhu, “Cell anchorage and the cytoskeleton as partners in growth factor dependent cell cycle progression,” Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Ohtsubo, A. M. Theodoras, J. Schumacher, J. M. Roberts, and M. Pagano, “Human cyclin E, a nuclear protein essential for the G1-to-S phase transition,” Molecular & Cellular Biology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 2612–2624, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Girard, U. Strausfeld, A. Fernandez, and N. J. C. Lamb, “Cyclin A is required for the onset of DNA replication in mammalian fibroblasts,” Cell, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1169–1179, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. H. Walker and J. L. Maller, “Role for cyclin A in the dependence of mitosis on completion of DNA replication,” Nature, vol. 354, no. 6351, pp. 314–317, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Pagano, R. Pepperkok, F. Verde, W. Ansorge, and G. Draetta, “Cyclin A is required at two points in the human cell cycle,” EMBO Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 961–971, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. W. King, P. K. Jackson, and M. W. Kirschner, “Mitosis in transition,” Cell, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 563–571, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Arellano and S. Moreno, “Regulation of CDK/cyclin complexes during the cell cycle,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 559–573, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Nilbert and E. Rambech, “β-catenin activation through mutation is rare in rectal cancer,” Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 43–45, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Polakis, “Wnt signaling and cancer,” Genes & Development, vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 1837–1851, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Kimura, H. Shiozaki, Y. Doki et al., “Cytoplasmic ß-catenin in esophageal cancers,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 174–178, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. J. Morin, A. B. Sparks, V. Korinek et al., “Activation of ß-catenin-Tcf signaling in colon cancer by mutations in ß-catenin or APC,” Science, vol. 275, no. 5307, pp. 1787–1790, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Munemitsu, I. Albert, B. Souza, D. Rubinfeld, and P. Polakis, “Regulation of intracellular β-catenin levels by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor protein,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 3046–3050, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. V. Dang, “c-Myc target genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, and metabolism,” Molecular & Cellular Biology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. E. Nesbit, J. M. Tersak, and E. V. Prochownik, “MYC oncogenes and human neoplastic disease,” Oncogene, vol. 18, no. 19, pp. 3004–3016, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. G. Rothberg, “The role of the oncogene c-Myc in sporadic large bowel cancer and familial polyposis coli,” Seminars in Surgical Oncology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 152–158, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. V. Prochownik, “c-Myc as a therapeutics target in cancer,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 289–302, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Bondi, G. Bukholm, J. M. Nesland, and I. R. K. Bukholm, “Expression of non-membranous β-catenin and γ-catenin, c-Myc and cyclin D1 in relation to patient outcome in human colon adenocarcinomas,” Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Bondi, A. Husdal, G. Bukholm, J. M. Nesland, A. Bakka, and I. R. K. Bukholm, “Expression and gene amplification of primary (A, B1, D1, D3, and E) and secondary (C and H) cyclins in colon adenocarcinomas and correlation with patient outcome,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 509–514, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Rudolph, H. Kuhling, P. Alm et al., “Differential prognostic impact of the cyclins E and B in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with lymph node-negative breast cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 674–680, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. J. Livak and T. D. Schmittgen, “Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2ΔΔCT method,” Methods, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 402–408, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Baldini, A. Camerini, A. Sgambato et al., “Cyclin A and E2F1 overexpression correlate with reduced disease-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients,” Anticancer Research, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 4415–4421, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Michalides, H. van Tinteren, A. Balkenende et al., “Cyclin A is a prognostic indicator in early stage breast cancer with and without tamoxifen treatment,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 402–408, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Poikonen, J. Sjostrom, R.-M. Amini, K. Villman, J. Ahlgren, and C. Blomqvist, “Cyclin A as a marker for prognosis and chemotherapy response in advanced breast cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 515–519, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Engellau, P.-O. Bendahl, A. Persson et al., “Improved prognostication in soft tissue sarcoma: independent information from vascular invasion, necrosis, growth pattern, and immunostaining using whole-tumor sections and tissue microarrays,” Human Pathology, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 994–1002, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Noguchi, Y. Dobashi, H. Minehara, M. Itoman, and T. Kameya, “Involvement of cyclins in cell proliferation and their clinical implications in soft tissue smooth muscle tumors,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 156, no. 6, pp. 2135–2147, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Nakamura, H. Yamamoto, T. Yao et al., “Prognostic significance of expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the relevance of the risk grade,” Human Pathology, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 828–837, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Saarilahti, M. Kajanti, M. Kouri, L.-M. Aaltonen, K. Franssila, and H. Joensuu, “Cyclin A and Ki-67 expression as predictors for locoregional recurrence and outcome in laryngeal cancer patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 986–995, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H.-M. Chen, M. Y.-P. Kuo, K.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Lin, and C.-P. Chiang, “Expression of cyclin A is related to progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Taiwan,” Oral Oncology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 476–482, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Chao, Y.-L. Shih, J.-H. Chiu et al., “Overexpression of cyclin A but not Skp 2 correlates with the tumor relapse of human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 985–990, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Molendini, M. S. Benassi, G. Magagnoli et al., “Prognostic significance of cyclin expression in human osteosarcoma,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1007–1011, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Nakabayashi, K. Shimizu, and M. Hara, “Prognostic significance of cyclin A expression in meningiomas,” Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Korshunov, L. Shishkina, and A. Golanov, “DNA topoisomerase II-α and cyclin A immunoexpression in meningiomas and its prognostic significance: an analysis of 263 cases,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 126, no. 9, pp. 1079–1086, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. J. Thomson, O. Hamadah, M. L. Goodson, N. Cragg, and C. Booth, “Predicting recurrence after oral precancer treatment: use of cell cycle analysis,” British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 370–375, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. I. R. K. Bukholm, G. Bukholm, and J. M. Nesland, “Over-expression of cyclin A is highly associated with early relapse and reduced survival in patients with primary breast carcinomas,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 283–287, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. L. Huuhtanen, C. P. Blomqvist, T. O. Bohling et al., “Expression of cyclin A in soft tissue sarcomas correlates with tumor aggressiveness,” Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 2885–2890, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Q. Zhou, Q. He, and L.-J. Liang, “Expression of p27, cyclin E and cyclin A in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 2450–2454, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Mrena, J.-P. Wiksten, A. Kokkola, S. Nordling, C. Haglund, and A. Ristimaki, “Prognostic significance of cyclin A in gastric cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 119, no. 8, pp. 1897–1901, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Blegen, J. S. Will, B. M. Ghadimi et al., “DNA amplifications and aneuploidy, high proliferative activity and impaired cell cycle control characterize breast carcinomas with poor prognosis,” Analytical Cellular Pathology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 103–114, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Mattern, R. Koomagi, and M. Volm, “Characteristics of long-term survivors of untreated lung cancer,” Lung Cancer, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 277–282, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Volm, R. Koomagi, J. Mattern, and G. Stammler, “Cyclin A is associated with an unfavourable outcome in patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 75, no. 12, pp. 1774–1778, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Dobashi, M. Shoji, S.-X. Jiang, M. Kobayashi, Y. Kawakubo, and T. Kameya, “Active cyclin A-CDK2 complex, a possible critical factor for cell proliferation in human primary lung carcinomas,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 963–972, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Furihata, T. Ishikawa, A. Inoue et al., “Determination of the prognostic significance of unscheduled cyclin A overexpression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 1781–1785, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Wolowiec, F. Berger, P. Ffrench, P. A. Bryon, and M. Ffrench, “CDK1 and cyclin A expression is linked to cell proliferation and associated with prognosis in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas,” Leukemia & Lymphoma, vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 147–157, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H.-C. Shih, T. Shiozawa, K. Kato et al., “Immunohistochemical expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, tumor-suppressor gene products, Ki-67, and sex steroid receptors in endometrial carcinoma: positive staining for cyclin A as a poor prognostic indicator,” Human Pathology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 471–478, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Ekberg, C. Holm, S. Jalili et al., “Expression of cyclin A1 and cell cycle proteins in hematopoietic cells and acute myeloid leukemia and links to patient outcome,” European Journal of Haematology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 106–115, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Furihata, Y. Ohtsuki, H. Sonobe et al., “Cyclin A overexpression in carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter including dysplasia: immunohistochemical findings in relation to prognosis,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 1399–1404, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Shiohara, T. Shiozawa, T. Miyamoto et al., “Expression of cyclins, p53, and Ki-67 in cervical squamous cell carcinomas: overexpression of cyclin A is a poor prognostic factor in stage Ib and II disease,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 446, no. 6, pp. 626–633, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. J. Nilsson, C. Lenander, C. Rubio, G. Auer, O. Ljungqvist, and B. Glimelius, “Prognostic significance of cyclin A in epidermoid anal cancer,” Oncology Reports, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 443–449, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. A. Bahnassy, A.-R. Zekri, S. El-Houssini et al., “Cyclin A and cyclin D1 as significant prognostic markers in colorectal cancer patients,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 4, article 22, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Handa, M. Yamakawa, H. Takeda, S. Kimura, and T. Takahashi, “Expression of cell cycle markers in colorectal carcinoma: superiority of cyclin A as an indicator of poor prognosis,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 225–233, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Nozoe, S. Inutsuka, M. Honda, T. Ezaki, and D. Korenaga, “Clinicopathologic significance of cyclin A expression in colorectal carcinoma,” Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 127–133, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Schuhmacher, M. S. Staege, A. Pajic et al., “Control of cell growth by c-Myc in the absence of cell division,” Current Biology, vol. 9, no. 21, pp. 1255–1258, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Jansen-Durr, A. Meichle, P. Steiner et al., “Differential modulation of cyclin gene expression by MYC,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 3685–3689, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. F. Buckley, K. J. E. Sweeney, J. A. Hamilton et al., “Expression and amplification of cyclin genes in human breast cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 2127–2133, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. L. C. Khoo, S. Ezzat, J. L. Freeman, and S. L. Asa, “Cyclin D1 protein expression predicts metastatic behavior in thyroid papillary microcarcinomas but is not associated with gene amplification,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1810–1813, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. Platzer, M. B. Upender, K. Wilson et al., “Silence of chromosomal amplifications in colon cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1134–1138, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Nilbert, M. Planck, E. Fernebro, A. Borg, and A. Johnson, “Microsatellite instability is rare in rectal carcinomas and signifies hereditary cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 942–945, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. Fernebro, B. Halvarsson, B. Baldetorp, and M. Nilbert, “Predominance of CIN versus MSI in the development of rectal cancer at young age,” BMC Cancer, vol. 2, article 25, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Frattini, D. Balestra, S. Suardi et al., “Different genetic features associated with colon and rectal carcinogenesis,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 4015–4021, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. Kapiteijn, G. J. Liefers, L. C. Los et al., “Mechanisms of oncogenesis in colon versus rectal cancer,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 195, no. 2, pp. 171–178, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus