Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 676585, 12 pages
Review Article

Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Some Children Diseases: A Review

Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's University Hospital “La Paz”, Autonomous University of Madrid, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid, Spain

Received 30 March 2012; Revised 28 July 2012; Accepted 30 July 2012

Academic Editor: Bjørn Moum

Copyright © 2012 Thabata Koester Weber and Isabel Polanco. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The bacterial colonization is defined immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of immune system leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favoring the health of the host. This paper is a review about modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention and adjuvant treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal diseases.