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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 682156, 9 pages
Research Article

Influence of Diet and Tobacco Smoking on Pancreatic Cancer Incidence in Poland in 1960–2008

National Food and Nutrition Institute, Powsińska Street 61/63, 02-903 Warsaw, Poland

Received 25 May 2012; Revised 12 November 2012; Accepted 22 November 2012

Academic Editor: Grazyna Rydzewska

Copyright © 2012 Mirosław Jarosz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between pancreatic cancer incidence and selected dietary factors, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking in Poland in 1960–2008. Data on pancreatic cancer morbidity were derived from the National Cancer Registry and on food consumption from the national food balance sheets. In 1960–1989 correlations were found between pancreatic cancer incidence rates and energy (0.60 for males and 0.57 for females), cholesterol (0.87 and 0.80), fibre (−0.84 and −0.89) and folate (−0.45 and −0.49) intake, the consumption of total fats (0.94 and 0.91), animal fats (0,90 and 0,82), sugar (0.88 and 0.87), cereals (−0.93 and −0.91), and alcohol (0.86 and 0.82). In 1990–2008 morbidity correlated with the consumption of red meat (0.67 and 0.48), poultry (−0.88 and −0.57), and fruit (−0.62 and −0.50). Correlation with tobacco smoking was observed in the whole studied period (0.55 and 0.44). Increased incidence of pancreatic cancer in 1960–1995 was probably related to adverse dietary patterns up to 1989, especially high consumption of fats, sugar, and alcohol. Further positive changes in the diet such as lowering red meat consumption and increasing fruit consumption could influence incidence reduction in recent years. Also changes in tobacco smoking could affect the morbidity.