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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 757926, 9 pages
Review Article

Helicobacter  pylori Eradication Therapies in the Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance: A Paradigm Shift to Improved Efficacy

1Department of Gastroenterology, Athens Medical Center of P. Phaliron, P. Phaliron, 17562 Athens, Greece
2Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Rhodes, 85100 Rhodes, Greece

Received 3 March 2012; Accepted 8 May 2012

Academic Editor: Ping-I Hsu

Copyright © 2012 Sotirios D. Georgopoulos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with standard treatments are decreasing to unacceptable levels (i.e., ≤80%) in most countries. After these disappointing results, several authorities have proposed that infection with H. pylori should be approached and treated as any other bacterial infectious disease. This implicates that clinicians should prescribe empirical treatments yielding a per protocol eradication of at least 90%. In recent years several treatments producing ≥90% cure rates have been proposed including sequential therapy, concomitant quadruple therapy, hybrid (dual-concomitant) therapy, and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy. These treatments are likely to represent the recommended first-line treatments in the near future. In the present paper, we are considering a series of critical issues regarding currently available means and approaches for the management of H. pylori infection. Clinical needs and realistic endpoints are taken into account. Furthermore, emerging strategies for the eradication of H. pylori and the existing evidence of their clinical validation and widespread applicability are discussed.