Figure 3: Diseases influenced by gut microbial metabolism. The variety of systemic diseases that are directly influenced by gut microbial metabolism and its influence on other mammalian pathways, such as the innate immune system, are shown. Specifically highlighted are the metabolic pathways involved in drug metabolism and obesity that are directly influenced by the gut microbial content. Ags, antigens; C. bolteae, Clostridium bolteae; DCs; dendritic cells; SCFA, short-chain fatty acid; TLR, toll-like receptor. Kinross et al. Genome Medicine 2011 3:14.