RCTs: randomized controlled trials; : number of patients; I/II/III/IV: cancer stage; IV refers to T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0; T3/4: percentage of T3 and T4 stage; N+: percentage of node positive; DFS: disease-free survival; OS: overall survival; HR: hazard ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval. NR: not report. XP: capecitabine + cisplatin; XRT: radiotherapy with capecitabine; RT: radiotherapy; FL: fluorouracil plus leucovorin; MMC: mitomycin; XELOX: oxaliplatin + capecitabine.
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