Table 1: Characteristics of the baclofen studies included in this meta-analysis.

SourceStudy designParameters evaluatedNumber of patientsMean ageStudy duration Dosing regimen

Beaumont and Boeckxstaens (2009) [12]DB, RCT crossoverIncidence of GER,
acid reflux time
2754.012 dT.i.d 20 mg
Cange et al. (2002) [13]DB, RCT crossoverIncidence of acid GER,
acid reflux time
2041.24 wQ.d 40 mg
Ciccaglione and Marzio (2003) [14]DB, RCTIncidence of GER,
acid reflux time
4341.04 wQ.i.d 10 mg
DB, RCTIncidence of GER,
acid reflux time
4349.02 wT.i.d
10, 10, 10 mg (D1–3)
Cossentino et al. (2012) [15]20, 10, 10 mg (D4)
20, 20, 10 mg (D5)
20, 20, 20 mg (D6–14)
Gerson et al. (2010) [16]DB, RCT crossoverIncidence of GER, heartburn5041.04 wQ.d, 4 different doses
10, 20, 40, 60 mg
Grossi et al. (2008) [17]DB, RCT Incidence of TLESR 2343.02 dQ.i.d 10 mg
Lidums et al. (2000) [18]DB, RCTIncidence of GER,
incidence of TLESR,
acid reflux time, and
rate of swallowing
2024.01 wQ.2d 40 mg
Omari et al. (2006) [19]DB, RCT1Incidence of TLESR,
incidence of GER,
gastric emptying,
pharyngeal swallow,
LES pressure, and
acid reflux time
3010.012 hA single dose 0.5 mg/kg
van Herwaarden et al. (2002) [20]DB, RCT crossoverIncidence of TLESR,
incidence of GER, and
acid reflux time
3742.34 daysQ.d 40 mg

DB: double-blinded; GER: gastroesophageal reflux; RCT: randomized controlled trial; Q.d: once per day; T.i.d: 3 times per day; Q.i.d: 4 times per day; Q.2d: once per 2 days.