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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2014, Article ID 803185, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/803185
Review Article

Gut Microbiota in HIV Infection: Implication for Disease Progression and Management

1Hedmark University College, 2306 Hamar, Norway
2Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway

Received 29 March 2014; Revised 28 May 2014; Accepted 29 May 2014; Published 12 June 2014

Academic Editor: Serena Schippa

Copyright © 2014 Felix Chinweije Nwosu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Survival rates among HIV patients have significantly improved since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV management. However, persistent disease progression and clinical complications in virally suppressed individuals point to additional contributing factors other than HIV replication; microbial translocation is one such factor. The role of underlying commensal microbes and microbial products that traverse the intestinal lumen into systemic circulation in the absence of overt bacteraemia is under current investigation. This review focuses on current knowledge of the complex microbial communities and microbial markers involved in the disruption of mucosal immune T-cells in the promotion of inflammatory processes in HIV infections. Unanswered questions and aims for future studies are addressed. We provide perspective for discussing potential future therapeutic strategies focused on modulating the gut microbiota to abate HIV disease progression.