Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2015, Article ID 435820, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/435820
Review Article

Optimizing the Care and Health of Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Department of Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 8E Gastroenterology, 110 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA

Received 2 December 2014; Revised 21 April 2015; Accepted 11 May 2015

Academic Editor: Caroline Nordenvall

Copyright © 2015 Judy Nee and Joseph D. Feuerstein. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. D. Feuerstein and A. S. Cheifetz, “Ulcerative colitis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 1553–1563, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. A. S. Cheifetz, “Management of active Crohn disease,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 309, no. 20, pp. 2150–2158, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Wilks, “Morbid appearances in the intestine of Miss Bankes,” London Medical Times & Gazette, vol. 2, p. 264, 1859. View at Google Scholar
  4. P. Nandivada, V. Poylin, and D. Nagle, “Advances in the surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Cosnes, C. Gowerrousseau, P. Seksik, and A. Cortot, “Epidemiology and natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 1785–1794, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. B. Crohn, L. Ginzburg, and G. D. Oppenheimer, “Regional ileitis: a pathological and clinical entity,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 251, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 1932. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Rutgeerts, K. Geboes, G. Vantrappen, J. Beyls, R. Kerremans, and M. Hiele, “Predictability of the postoperative course of Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 956–963, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi et al., “Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review,” Gastroenterology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 46–54.e42, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. V. Loftus Jr., “Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1504–1517, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. I. Benchimol, K. J. Fortinsky, P. Gozdyra, M. van den Heuvel, J. van Limbergen, and A. M. Griffiths, “Epidemiology of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review of international trends,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 423–439, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi et al., “Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review,” Gastroenterology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 46.e42–54.e42, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. D. Johnston and R. F. A. Logan, “What is the peak age for onset of IBD?” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 14, supplement 2, pp. S4–S5, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Vernier-Massouille, M. Balde, J. Salleron et al., “Natural history of pediatric Crohn's disease: a population-based cohort study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 1106–1113, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. B. Heyman, B. S. Kirschner, B. D. Gold et al., “Children with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): analysis of a pediatric IBD consortium registry,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Ghosh and R. Mitchell, “Impact of inflammatory bowel disease on quality of life: results of the European Federation of Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Associations (EFCCA) patient survey,” Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. R. Clearfield, “How does IBD affect quality of life?” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 14, pp. S45–S46, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. J. Muir, L. J. Edwards, L. L. Sanders et al., “A prospective evaluation of health-related quality of life after ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1480–1485, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Moradkhani, L. J. Beckman, and J. H. Tabibian, “Health-related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease: psychosocial, clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic predictors,” Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 467–473, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. de Boer, M. Grootenhuis, B. Derkx, and B. Last, “Health-related quality of life and psychosocial functioning of adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 400–406, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. K. Cross, O. Lapshin, and J. Finkelstein, “Patient subjective assessment of drug side effects in inflammatory bowel disease,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 244–251, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. M. MacKner, R. M. Bickmeier, and W. V. Crandall, “Academic achievement, attendance, and school-related quality of life in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease,” Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 106–111, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. B. Ballinger, M. O. Savage, and I. R. Sanderson, “Delayed puberty associated with inflammatory bowel disease,” Pediatric Research, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 205–210, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Ferguson and D. M. Sedgwick, “Juvenile onset inflammatory bowel disease: height and body mass index in adult life,” British Medical Journal, vol. 308, no. 6939, pp. 1259–1263, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Heuschkel, C. Salvestrini, R. M. Beattie, H. Hildebrand, T. Walters, and A. Griffiths, “Guidelines for the management of growth failure in childhood inflammatory bowel disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 839–849, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. E. Brain and M. O. Savage, “Growth and puberty in chronic inflammatory bowel disease,” Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 83–100, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Moore, D. Barlow, D. Jewell, and S. Kennedy, “Do gastrointestinal symptoms vary with the menstrual cycle?” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 105, no. 12, pp. 1322–1325, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. T. Bernstein, L. A. Graff, L. E. Targownik et al., “Gastrointestinal symptoms before and during menses in women with IBD,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 135–144, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Saha, Y.-Q. Zhao, S. A. Shah et al., “Menstrual cycle changes in women with inflammatory bowel disease: a study from the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 534–540, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. M. Lim, C. M. Nam, Y. N. Kim et al., “The effect of the menstrual cycle on inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective study,” Gut and Liver, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Kane, B. Khatibi, and D. Reddy, “Higher incidence of abnormal Pap smears in women with inflammatory bowel disease,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 631–636, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Singh, A. A. Demers, Z. Nugent, S. M. Mahmud, E. V. Kliewer, and C. N. Bernstein, “Risk of cervical abnormalities in women with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based nested case-control study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 451–458, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. A. Smith, P. M. Irving, A. M. Marinaki, and J. D. Sanderson, “Review article: malignancy on thiopurine treatment with special reference to inflammatory bowel disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 119–130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. W. Lees, J. Critchley, N. Chee et al., “Lack of association between cervical dysplasia and IBD: a large case-control study,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1621–1629, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Rungoe, J. Simonsen, L. Riis, M. Frisch, E. Langholz, and T. Jess, “Inflammatory bowel disease and cervical neoplasia: a population-based nationwide cohort study,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 693–700.e1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. V. A. Moyer, “Screening for cervical cancer: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 156, no. 12, pp. 880–891, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology, “ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 117: Gynecologic care for women with human immunodeficiency virus,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 1492–1509, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. H. Singh, Z. Nugent, A. A. Demers, and C. N. Bernstein, “Screening for cervical and breast cancer among women with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1741–1750, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. E. Markowitz, E. F. Dunne, M. Saraiya et al., “Human papillomavirus vaccination: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP),” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 63, pp. 1–30, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  39. S. K. Wasan, J. A. Coukos, and F. A. Farraye, “Vaccinating the inflammatory bowel disease patient: deficiencies in gastroenterologists knowledge,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2536–2540, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. B. Trachter, A. I. Rogers, and S. R. Leiblum, “Inflammatory bowel disease in women: impact on relationship and sexual health,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 413–421, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Timmer, D. Kemptner, A. Bauer, A. Takses, C. Ott, and A. Fürst, “Determinants of female sexual function in inflammatory bowel disease: a survey based cross-sectional analysis,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 8, article 45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Marín, M. Mañosa, E. Garcia-Planella et al., “Sexual function and patients' perceptions in inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control survey,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 713–720, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. A. Moody and J. F. Mayberry, “Perceived sexual dysfunction amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease,” Digestion, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 256–260, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. R. Muller, R. Prosser, P. Bampton, R. Mountifield, and J. M. Andrews, “Female gender and surgery impair relationships, body image, and sexuality in inflammatory bowel disease: patient perceptions,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 657–663, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Timmer, A. Bauer, A. Dignass, and G. Rogler, “Sexual function in persons with inflammatory bowel disease: a survey with matched controls,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 87–94, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. Christensen, “Inflammatory bowel disease and sexual dysfunction,” Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 53–55, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  47. M. Scaglia, G. G. Delaini, and L. Hultén, “Sexual dysfunctions after conventional proctocolectomy,” Chirurgia Italiana, vol. 44, no. 5-6, pp. 230–242, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. M. Metcalf, R. R. Dozois, and K. A. Kelly, “Sexual function in women after proctocolectomy,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 204, no. 6, pp. 624–627, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Damgaard, A. Wettergren, and P. Kirkegaard, “Social and sexual function following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis,” Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 286–289, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. J. Davies, B. I. O'Connor, C. Victor, H. M. Macrae, Z. Cohen, and R. S. McLeod, “A prospective evaluation of sexual function and quality of life after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis,” Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1032–1035, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. S. Dunker, W. A. Bemelman, J. F. M. Slors, P. van Duijvendijk, and D. J. Gouma, “Functional outcome, quality of life, body image, and cosmesis in patients after laparoscopic-assisted and conventional restorative proctocolectomy: a comparative study,” Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1800–1807, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. J. Follick, T. W. Smith, and D. C. Turk, “Psychosocial adjustment following ostomy,” Health Psychology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 505–517, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Weerakoon, “Sexuality and the patient with a stoma,” Sexuality and Disability, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 121–129, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. R. Gloeckner, “Partner reaction following ostomy surgery,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 182–190, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. N. Brouillette, E. Pryor, and T. A. Fox Jr., “Evaluation of sexual dysfunction in the female following rectal resection and intestinal stoma,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 96–102, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. Mountifield, P. Bampton, R. Prosser, K. Muller, and J. M. Andrews, “Fear and fertility in inflammatory bowel disease: a mismatch of perception and reality affects family planning decisions,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 720–725, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. R. Marri, C. Ahn, and A. L. Buchman, “Voluntary childlessness is increased in women with inflammatory bowel disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 591–599, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Mañosa, M. Navarro-Llavat, L. Marín, Y. Zabana, E. Cabré, and E. Domènech, “Fecundity, pregnancy outcomes, and breastfeeding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a large cohort survey,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 427–432, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Waljee, J. Waljee, A. M. Morris, and P. D. R. Higgins, “Threefold increased risk of infertility: a meta-analysis of infertility after ileal pouch anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 1575–1580, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. U. Mahadevan, “Fertility and pregnancy in the patient with inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1198–1206, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. V. Pabby, S. S. Oza, L. E. Dodge et al., “In vitro fertilization is successful in women with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch anal anastomosis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. M. Hudson, G. Flett, T. S. Sinclair, P. W. Brunt, A. Templeton, and N. A. G. Mowat, “Fertility and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease,” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 229–237, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. W. Ng and U. Mahadevan, “My treatment approach to management of the pregnant patient with inflammatory bowel disease,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 355–360, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. A. Bennett, P. H. Rubin, and D. H. Present, “Frequency of inflammatory bowel disease in offspring of couples both presenting with inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 1638–1643, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Yang, C. McElree, M.-P. Roth, F. Shanahan, S. R. Targan, and J. I. Rotter, “Familial empirical risks for inflammatory bowel disease: differences between Jews and non-Jews,” Gut, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 517–524, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Cox, J. Tripp, and S. Blacksell, “Clinical performance of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in routine use by the UK Family Planning and Reproductive Health Research Network: 5-year report,” Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 73–77, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. G. Wakeman, “Exacerbation of Crohn's disease after insertion of a levonorgestrel intrauterine system: a case report,” Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, vol. 29, no. 3, p. 154, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. B. Zapata, M. E. Paulen, C. Cansino, P. A. Marchbanks, and K. M. Curtis, “Contraceptive use among women with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review,” Contraception, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 72–85, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. D. Dickinson, R. D. Altman, N. H. Nielsen, and M. L. Sterling, “Drug interactions between oral contraceptives and antibiotics,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 853–860, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology, “ACOG practice bulletin. No. 73: use of hormonal contraception in women with coexisting medical conditions,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 107, pp. 1453–1472, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  71. A. Flynn and S. Kane, “Antibiotics and oral contraceptive efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1174–1175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. E. Helms, D. L. Bredle, J. Zajic, D. Jarjoura, R. T. Brodell, and I. Krishnarao, “Oral contraceptive failure rates and oral antibiotics,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 705–710, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. Maggiolo, G. Puricelli, M. Dottorini, S. Caprioli, W. Bianchi, and F. Suter, “The effect of ciprofloxacin on oral contraceptive steroid treatments,” Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 451–454, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. F. Grimmer, D. J. Back, M. L. Orme, A. Cowie, I. Gilmore, and J. Tjia, “The bioavailability of ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel in patients with an ileostomy,” Contraception, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  75. J. P. Hanker, “Gastrointestinal disease and oral contraception,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 2204–2207, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. Nilsson, A. Victor, J. Kral, E. Johansson, and N. Kock, “Absorption of an oral contraceptive gestagen in ulcerative colitis before and after proctocolectomy and construction of a continent ileostomy,” Contraception, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 195–204, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. J. Cornish, E. Tan, C. Simillis, S. Clark, J. Teare, and P. P. Tekkis, “The risk of oral contraceptives in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 2394–2400, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. H. Khalili, L. M. Higuchi, A. N. Ananthakrishnan et al., “Oral contraceptives, reproductive factors and risk of inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1153–1159, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. P. Wright, “Factors influencing first relapse in patients with Crohn's disease,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli et al., “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Cosnes, F. Carbonnel, F. Carrat, L. Beaugerie, and J.-P. Gendre, “Oral contraceptive use and the clinical course of Crohn's disease: a prospective cohort study,” Gut, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 218–222, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. L. M. Gawron, A. Goldberger, A. J. Gawron, C. Hammond, and L. Keefer, “The impact of hormonal contraception on disease-related cyclical symptoms in women with inflammatory bowel diseases,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1729–1733, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. A. Lichtarowicz, C. Norman, B. Calcraft, J. S. Morris, J. Rhodes, and J. Mayberry, “A study of the menopause, smoking, and contraception in women with Crohn's disease,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine, vol. 72, no. 267, pp. 623–631, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. V. Kane and D. Reddy, “Hormonal replacement therapy after menopause is protective of disease activity in women with inflammatory bowel disease,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 1193–1196, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. E. Rossouw, G. L. Anderson, R. L. Prentice et al., “Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, pp. 321–333, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. H. Khalili, L. M. Higuchi, A. N. Ananthakrishnan et al., “Hormone therapy increases risk of ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 143, no. 5, pp. 1199–1206, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus