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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 560938, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/560938
Review Article

Peripheral Signals Mediate the Beneficial Effects of Gastric Surgery in Obesity

1Grupo Fisiopatología Endocrina, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), Travesía Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2Departamento de Pediatría, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), Travesía Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain
4Departamento de Fisiología, Centro de Investigación en Medicina Molecular y Enfermedades Crónicas (CIMUS), Avenida Barcelona s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
5Laboratorio de Endocrinología Molecular y Celular, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Travesía Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Received 24 November 2014; Accepted 21 March 2015

Academic Editor: Takuji Tanaka

Copyright © 2015 Silvia Barja-Fernández et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1). In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery.