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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2015, Article ID 573814, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/573814
Review Article

Serrated Polyps and Their Alternative Pathway to the Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review

1Department of Clinical Pathomorphology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
2Department of Oncologic Pathology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

Received 25 November 2014; Revised 20 March 2015; Accepted 22 March 2015

Academic Editor: Cristiano Pagnini

Copyright © 2015 Łukasz Szylberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer in the world. For a long time, only one pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis was known. In recent years, a new “alternative” pathway through serrated adenoma was described. Recent meta-analysis estimated these cancers as about 10% to 30% of all CRCs. Serrated polyps are the second most popular groups of polyps (after conventional adenomas) found during colonoscopy. Serrated polyps of the colon are clinically and molecularly diverse changes that have common feature as crypt luminal morphology characterized by glandular serration. Evidence suggests that subtypes of serrated polyps, particularly TSA and SSA/P, can lead to adenocarcinoma through the serrated pathway. Moreover, the data indicate that the SSA/P are the precursors of colorectal carcinoma by MSI and may be subject to rapid progression to malignancy. An important step to reduce the incidence of CRC initiated by the serrated pathway is to improve the detection of serrated polyps and to ensure their complete removal during endoscopy. Understanding of the so-called serrated carcinogenesis pathway is an important step forward in expanding possibilities in the prevention of CRC.