Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 953042, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/953042
Research Article

Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

1Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy
2Italian Association for Metals and Biocompatibility Research (AIRMEB), Via Banfi 4, 20122 Milan, Italy
3Pavia Poison Control Center and National Toxicology Information Centre, Toxicology Unit, IRCCS Maugeri Foundation and University of Pavia, Via Salvatore Maugeri 10, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan, Italy

Received 9 November 2014; Accepted 2 February 2015

Academic Editor: Paul Enck

Copyright © 2015 Luca Elli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. W. Clarkson, “The three modern faces of mercury,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, supplement 1, pp. 11–23, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Suresh Kumar Reddy, A. Al Shoaibi, and C. Srinivasakannan, “Elemental mercury adsorption on sulfur-impregnated porous carbon-a review,” Environmental Technology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 18–26, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. D. Day, P. R. Becker, O. F. X. Donard, R. S. Pugh, and S. A. Wise, “Environmental specimen banks as a resource for mercury and mercury isotope research in marine ecosystems,” Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 10–27, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. M. Koral, “The toxicology of mercury,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 9, pp. 945–947, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Sanfeliu, J. Sebastià, and S. U. Kim, “Methylmercury neurotoxicity in cultures of human neurons, astrocytes, neuroblastoma cells,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 317–327, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. M. Koral, “Mercury from dental amalgam: exposure and risk assessment,” Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 138–144, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. D. Park and W. Zheng, “Human exposure and health effects of inorganic and elemental mercury,” Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 344–352, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X. Xu, C. Mathieu, S. E. Boitard et al., “Skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase is irreversibly inhibited by mercury: molecular, cellular and kinetic aspects,” FEBS Letters, vol. 588, no. 1, pp. 138–142, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Ekino, M. Susa, T. Ninomiya, K. Imamura, and T. Kitamura, “Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 262, no. 1-2, pp. 131–144, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. K. Aminzadeh and M. Etminan, “Dental amalgam and multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 64–66, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Guzzi, G. B. Fogazzi, M. Cantu et al., “Dental amalgam, mercury toxicity, and renal autoimmunity,” Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 147–155, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C.-C. Kuo, K. Moon, K. A. Thayer, and A. Navas-Acien, “Environmental chemicals and type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence,” Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 831–849, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. F. Nyland, M. Fillion, F. Barbosa Jr. et al., “Biomarkers of methylmercury exposure immunotoxicity among fish consumers in amazonian Brazil,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 1733–1738, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Guzzi and C. A. M. La Porta, “Molecular mechanisms triggered by mercury,” Toxicology, vol. 244, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Havarinasab, E. Björn, J. Ekstrand, and P. Hultman, “Dose and Hg species determine the T-helper cell activation in murine autoimmunity,” Toxicology, vol. 229, no. 1-2, pp. 23–32, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. L. Jacobson, S. J. Gange, N. R. Rose, and N. M. H. Graham, “Epidemiology and estimated population burden of selected autoimmune diseases in the United States,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 223–243, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Hultman and H. Hansson-Georgiadis, “Methyl mercury-induced autoimmunity in mice,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 203–211, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Moszczynski, S. Slowinski, J. Rutkowski, S. Bem, and D. Jakus-Stoga, “Lymphocytes, T and NK cells, in men occupationally exposed to mercury vapours,” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Fasano and C. Catassi, “Celiac disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 367, no. 25, pp. 2419–2426, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Gujral, H. J. Freeman, and A. B. R. Thomson, “Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 42, pp. 6036–6059, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Nijeboer, R. L. J. van Wanrooij, G. J. Tack, C. J. J. Mulder, and G. Bouma, “Update on the diagnosis and management of refractory coeliac disease,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol. 2013, Article ID 518483, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. T. Bardella, L. Elli, S. D. Matteis, I. Floriani, V. Torri, and L. Piodi, “Autoimmune disorders in patients affected by celiac sprue and inflammatory bowel disease,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 139–143, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Elli, V. Discepolo, M. T. Bardella, and S. Guandalini, “Does gluten intake influence the development of celiac disease-associated complications?” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Elli, C. M. Bergamini, M. T. Bardella, and D. Schuppan, “Transglutaminases in inflammation and fibrosis of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 541–550, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Pavone, E. Nicolini, R. Taibi, and M. Ruggieri, “Rotavirus and celiac disease,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 8, article 1831, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Sánchez, I. Nadal, E. Donat, C. Ribes-Koninckx, M. Calabuig, and Y. Sanz, “Reduced diversity and increased virulence-gene carriage in intestinal enterobacteria of coeliac children,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 8, article 50, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Oberhuber, G. Granditsch, and H. Vogelsang, “The histopathology of coeliac disease: time for a standardized report scheme for pathologists,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1185–1194, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Cooksey, “Health concerns of heavy metals and metalloids,” Science Progress, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 73–88, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. D. Pigatto, C. Minoia, A. Ronchi et al., “Allergological and toxicological aspects in a multiple chemical sensitivity cohort,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2013, Article ID 356235, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Apostoli, I. Cortesi, A. Mangili et al., “Assessment of reference values for mercury in urine: the results of an Italian polycentric study,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 289, no. 1–3, pp. 13–24, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. D. Mayes, “Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, supplement 5, pp. 743–748, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. G. Cole and M. F. Kagnoff, “Celiac disease,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 5, pp. 241–266, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Elli and M. T. Bardella, “Motility disorders in patients with celiac disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 743–749, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. H. R. Green and B. Jabri, “Coeliac disease,” The Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9381, pp. 383–391, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Lohi, K. Mustalahti, K. Kaukinen et al., “Increasing prevalence of coeliac disease over time,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1217–1225, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Mustalahti, C. Catassi, A. Reunanen et al., “The prevalence of celiac disease in Europe: results of a centralized, international mass screening project,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 587–595, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Nisticò, C. Fagnani, I. Coto et al., “Concordance, disease progression, and heritability of coeliac disease in Italian twins,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 803–804, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. Schuppan, Y. Junker, and D. Barisani, “Celiac disease: from pathogenesis to novel therapies,” Gastroenterology, vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 1912–1933, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. M. Sollid and B. Jabri, “Triggers and drivers of autoimmunity: lessons from coeliac disease,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 294–302, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Elli, E. Dolfini, and M. T. Bardella, “Gliadin cytotoxicity and in vitro cell cultures,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. F. Ludvigsson, S. M. Montgomery, and A. Ekbom, “Smoking and celiac disease: a population-based cohort study,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 869–874, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Å. Persson, A. Ivarsson, and O. Hernell, “Breast-feeding protects against celiac disease in childhood—epidemiological evidence,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 503, pp. 115–123, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. R. Tubbs, G. N. Gephardt, J. T. McMahon et al., “Membranous glomerulonephritis associated with industrial mercury exposure. Study of pathogenetic mechanisms,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 409–413, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Miller, S. Pallan, A. S. Gangji, D. Lukic, and C. M. Clase, “Mercury-associated nephrotic syndrome: a case report and systematic review of the literature,” The American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 135–138, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Albert, C. Clarkin, J. Komoroski, C. M. Brensinger, and J. A. Berlin, “Wegener's granulomatosis: possible role of environmental agents in its pathogenesis,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 656–664, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. C. Arnett, M. J. Fritzler, C. Ahn, and A. Holian, “Urinary mercury levels in patients with autoantibodies to U3-RNP (fibrillarin),” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 405–410, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Prochazkova, I. Sterzl, H. Kucerova, J. Bartova, and V. D. M. Stejskal, “The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity,” Neuroendocrinology Letters, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 211–218, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. M. Abréu Vélez, G. Warfvinge, W. L. Herrera et al., “Detection of mercury and other undetermined materials in skin biopsies of endemic pemphigus foliaceus,” The American Journal of Dermatopathology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 384–391, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. M. Attar, A. Kharkhaneh, M. Etemadifar, K. Keyhanian, V. Davoudi, and M. Saadatnia, “Serum mercury level and multiple sclerosis,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 150–153, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. D. Pigatto, C. Minoia, L. Brambilla, S. Ferrucci, and G. Guzzi, “Auto-antibodies to nuclear and nucleolar antigen and long-term exposure to inorganic mercury,” Environmental Research, vol. 110, no. 8, article 821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Vázquez, M. Calatayud, D. Vélez, and V. Devesa, “Intestinal transport of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in various models of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells,” Toxicology, vol. 311, no. 3, pp. 147–153, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Zubizarreta, E. Zapata, and A. Castiella, “Celiac disease and hemochromatosis,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 6, p. 589, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. Barisani, S. Ceroni, S. del Bianco, R. Meneveri, and M. T. Bardella, “Hemochromatosis gene mutations and iron metabolism in celiac disease,” Haematologica, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 1299–1305, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus