Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2016, Article ID 2031480, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2031480
Review Article

The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Received 8 September 2016; Revised 18 November 2016; Accepted 5 December 2016

Academic Editor: Magdy El-Salhy

Copyright © 2016 Kang Nyeong Lee and Oh Young Lee. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. L. S. Soares, “Irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 34, pp. 12144–12160, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. F. Longstreth, W. G. Thompson, W. D. Chey, L. A. Houghton, F. Mearin, and R. C. Spiller, “Functional bowel disorders,” Gastroenterology, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1480–1491, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. E. Lacy, F. Mearin, L. Chang et al., “Bowel disorders,” Gastroenterology, vol. 150, no. 6, pp. 1393.e5–1407.e5, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. E. Sinagra, G. Pompei, G. Tomasello et al., “Inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome: myth or new treatment target?” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, pp. 2242–2255, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  5. J. Matricon, M. Meleine, A. Gelot et al., “Review article: associations between immune activation, intestinal permeability and the irritable bowel syndrome,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 36, no. 11-12, pp. 1009–1031, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Martínez, A. González-Castro, M. Vicario, and J. Santos, “Cellular and molecular basis of intestinal barrier dysfunction in the irritable bowel syndrome,” Gut and Liver, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 305–315, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Barbara, C. Cremon, G. Carini et al., “The immune system in irritable bowel syndrome,” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 349–359, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Tanaka, M. Kanazawa, S. Fukudo, and D. A. Drossman, “Biopsychosocial model of irritable bowel syndrome,” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 131–139, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Zhang, J. Song, and X. Hou, “Mast cells and irritable bowel syndrome: from the bench to the bedside,” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 181–192, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. M. Wouters, M. Vicario, and J. Santos, “The role of mast cells in functional GI disorders,” Gut, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 155–168, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. L. Vermillion, P. B. Ernst, R. Scicchitano, and S. M. Collins, “Antigen-induced contraction of jejunal smooth muscle in the sensitized rat,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 255, no. 6, pp. G701–G708, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Gué, C. Del Rio-Lacheze, H. Eutamene, V. Théodorou, J. Fioramonti, and L. Buéno, “Stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity to rectal distension in rats: role of CRF and mast cells,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 271–279, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. C. Bischoff, “Physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal mast cells,” Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 185–205, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Traver, R. Torres, F. De Mora, and P. Vergara, “Mucosal mast cells mediate motor response induced by chronic oral exposure to ovalbumin in the rat gastrointestinal tract,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. e34–e43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G.-D. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, S. Liu et al., “Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 307, no. 7, pp. G719–G731, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Rivera, N. A. Fierro, A. Olivera, and R. Suzuki, “Chapter 3 new insights on mast cell activation via the high affinity receptor for IgE,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 98, pp. 85–120, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. M. Gilfillan and J. Rivera, “The tyrosine kinase network regulating mast cell activation,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 149–169, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. B. Olszewski, A. J. Groot, J. Dastych, and E. F. Knol, “TNF trafficking to human mast cell granules: mature chain-dependent endocytosis,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 9, pp. 5701–5709, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. A. Boyce, “Mast cells and eicosanoid mediators: a system of reciprocal paracrine and autocrine regulation,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 217, no. 1, pp. 168–185, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. C. Theoharides, P. Valent, and C. Akin, “Mast cells, mastocytosis, and related disorders,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 373, no. 2, pp. 163–172, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. Zhang, S. Asadi, Z. Weng, N. Sismanopoulos, and T. C. Theoharides, “Stimulated human mast cells secrete mitochondrial components that have autocrine and paracrine inflammatory actions,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 12, Article ID e49767, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Skokos, H. G. Botros, C. Demeure et al., “Mast cell-derived exosomes induce phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells and elicit specific immune responses in vivo,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 6, pp. 3037–3045, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Cremon, G. Carini, B. Wang et al., “Intestinal serotonin release, sensory neuron activation, and abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 7, pp. 1290–1298, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Di Nardo, G. Barbara, S. Cucchiara et al., “Neuroimmune interactions at different intestinal sites are related to abdominal pain symptoms in children with IBS,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 196–204, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Barbara, V. Stanghellini, R. De Giorgio et al., “Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 693–702, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Akbar, Y. Yiangou, P. Facer, J. R. F. Walters, P. Anand, and S. Ghosh, “Increased capsaicin receptor TRPV1-expressing sensory fibres in irritable bowel syndrome and their correlation with abdominal pain,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 923–929, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Cremon, L. Gargano, A. M. Morselli-Labate et al., “Mucosal immune activation in irritable bowel syndrome: gender-dependence and association with digestive symptoms,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 392–400, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Vivinus-Nébot, R. Dainese, R. Anty et al., “Combination of allergic factors can worsen diarrheic irritable bowel syndrome: role of barrier defects and mast cells,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Martínez, M. Vicario, L. Ramos et al., “The jejunum of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome shows molecular alterations in the tight junction signaling pathway that are associated with mucosal pathobiology and clinical manifestations,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 736–746, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Martínez, B. Lobo, M. Pigrau et al., “Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: an organic disorder with structural abnormalities in the jejunal epithelial barrier,” Gut, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1160–1168, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Piche, M. C. Saint-Paul, R. Dainese et al., “Mast cells and cellularity of the colonic mucosa correlated with fatigue and depression in irritable bowel syndrome,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 468–473, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Yang, M. Fox, Y. Cong et al., “Lactose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhoea: the roles of anxiety, activation of the innate mucosal immune system and visceral sensitivity,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 302–311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Lee, J. H. Park, D. I. Park et al., “Mucosal mast cell count is associated with intestinal permeability in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome,” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 244–250, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Balestra, R. Vicini, C. Cremon et al., “Colonic mucosal mediators from patients with irritable bowel syndrome excite enteric cholinergic motor neurons,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1118–e570, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Buhner, Q. Li, S. Vignali et al., “Activation of human enteric neurons by supernatants of colonic biopsy specimens from patients with irritable bowel syndrome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 1425–1434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Sohn, O. Y. Lee, S. P. Lee et al., “Mast cell number, substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Guilarte, J. Santos, I. De Torres et al., “Diarrhoea-predominant IBS patients show mast cell activation and hyperplasia in the jejunum,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 203–209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. H. Park, P.-L. Rhee, H. S. Kim et al., “Mucosal mast cell counts correlate with visceral hypersensitivity in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Braak, T. K. Klooker, M. M. Wouters et al., “Mucosal immune cell numbers and visceral sensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: is there any relationship?” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 715–726, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. K. Klooker, B. Braak, K. E. Koopman et al., “The mast cell stabiliser ketotifen decreases visceral hypersensitivity and improves intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome,” Gut, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 1213–1221, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. L. Reber, R. Sibilano, K. Mukai, and S. J. Galli, “Potential effector and immunoregulatory functions of mast cells in mucosal immunity,” Mucosal Immunology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 444–463, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. D. Stone, C. Prussin, and D. D. Metcalfe, “IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils,” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 125, no. 2, supplement 2, pp. S73–S80, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. C. Bischoff, J. Wedemeyer, A. Herrmann et al., “Quantitative assessment of intestinal eosinophils and mast cells in inflammatory bowel disease,” Histopathology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Z. M. da Silva, M. C. Jamur, and C. Oliver, “Mast cell function: a new vision of an old cell,” Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 698–738, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. J. Galli, M. Grimbaldeston, and M. Tsai, “Immunomodulatory mast cells: negative, as well as positive, regulators of immunity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 478–486, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. P. Hyland, M. Julio-Pieper, S. M. O'Mahony et al., “A distinct subset of submucosal mast cells undergoes hyperplasia following neonatal maternal separation: a role in visceral hypersensitivity?” Gut, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 1029–1030, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. C. Bischoff, “Role of mast cells in allergic and non-allergic immune responses: comparison of human and murine data,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 93–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. H. Stead, M. F. Dixon, N. H. Bramwell, R. H. Riddell, and J. Bienenstock, “Mast cells are closely apposed to nerves in the human gastrointestinal mucosa,” Gastroenterology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 575–585, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. H. Stead, “Innervation of mucosal immune cells in the gastrointestinal tract,” Regional Immunology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Newson, A. Dahlström, L. Enerbäck, and H. Ahlman, “Suggestive evidence for a direct innervation of mucosal mast cells: an electron microscopic study,” Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 565–570, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. H. Stead, M. Tomioka, G. Quinonez, G. T. Simon, S. Y. Felten, and J. Bienenstock, “Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 2975–2979, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. A. Castro, Y. Harari, and D. Russell, “Mediators of anaphylaxis-induced ion transport changes in small intestine,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 253, no. 4, pp. G540–G548, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Nasser, G. E. Boeckxstaens, M. M. Wouters, M. Schemann, and S. Vanner, “Using human intestinal biopsies to study the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 455–469, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. C. H. Yu and M. H. Perdue, “Role of mast cells in intestinal mucosal function: studies in models of hypersensitivity and stress,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 179, pp. 61–73, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. K. Ramage, R. H. Hunt, and M. H. Perdue, “Changes in intestinal permeability and epithelial differentiation during inflammation in the rat,” Gut, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. K. Ramage, A. Stanisz, R. Scicchitano, R. H. Hunt, and M. H. Perdue, “Effect of immunologic reactions on rat intestinal epithelium. Correlation of increased permeability to chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ovalbumin during acute inflammation and anaphylaxis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1368–1375, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Vivinus-Nébot, R. Dainese, R. Anty et al., “Combination of allergic factors can worsen diarrheic irritable bowel syndrome: role of barrier defects and mast cells,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. P. Dunlop, D. Jenkins, and R. C. Spiller, “Distinctive clinical, psychological, and histological features of postinfective irritable bowel syndrome,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 1578–1583, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L.-H. Wang, X.-C. Fang, and G.-Z. Pan, “Bacillary dysentery as a causative factor of irritable bowel syndrome and its pathogenesis,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1096–1101, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Barbara, B. Wang, V. Stanghellini et al., “Mast cell-dependent excitation of visceral-nociceptive sensory neurons in irritable bowel syndrome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 26–37, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. O'Sullivan, N. Clayton, N. P. Breslin et al., “Increased mast cells in the irritable bowel syndrome,” Neurogastroenterology & Motility, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 449–457, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S.-H. Wang, L. Dong, J.-Y. Luo et al., “Decreased expression of serotonin in the jejunum and increased numbers of mast cells in the terminal ileum in patients with irritable bowel syndrome,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, no. 45, pp. 6041–6047, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. A. P. Weston, W. L. Biddle, P. S. Bhatia, and P. B. Miner Jr., “Terminal ileal mucosal mast cells in irritable bowel syndrome,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1590–1595, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. M. Walker, N. J. Talley, M. Prabhakar et al., “Duodenal mastocytosis, eosinophilia and intraepithelial lymphocytosis as possible disease markers in the irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 765–773, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. P. M. Kerckhoffs, J. J. M. ter Linde, L. M. A. Akkermans, and M. Samsom, “SERT and TPH-1 mRNA expression are reduced in irritable bowel syndrome patients regardless of visceral sensitivity state in large intestine,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 302, no. 9, pp. G1053–G1060, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. V. S. Chadwick, W. Chen, D. Shu et al., “Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 122, no. 7, pp. 1778–1783, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J.-H. La, T.-W. Kim, T.-S. Sung, H.-J. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, and I.-S. Yang, “Role of mucosal mast cells in visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome,” Journal of veterinary science, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 319–324, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. Ohashi, Y. Sato, H. Iwata, M. Kawai, and Y. Kurebayashi, “Colonic mast cell infiltration in rats with TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 1223–1228, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. X.-Y. Gui, “Mast cells: a possible link between psychological stress, enteric infection, food allergy and gut hypersensitivity in the irritable bowel syndrome,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 980–989, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Schemann and M. Camilleri, “Functions and imaging of mast cell and neural axis of the gut,” Gastroenterology, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 698–704.e4, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. Barbara, C. Cremon, R. De Giorgio et al., “Mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome,” Current Gastroenterology Reports, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 308–315, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Camilleri, K. Lasch, and W. Zhou, “Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. the confluence of increased permeability, inflammation, and pain in irritable bowel syndrome,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 303, no. 7, pp. G775–G785, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. N. Cenac, C. N. Andrews, M. Holzhausen et al., “Role for protease activity in visceral pain in irritable bowel syndrome,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 636–647, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Buhner, B. Braak, Q. Li et al., “Neuronal activation by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients is linked to visceral sensitivity,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 1299–1311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. E. Valdez-Morales, J. Overington, R. Guerrero-Alba et al., “Sensitization of peripheral sensory nerves by mediators from colonic biopsies of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients: a role for PAR2,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 108, no. 10, pp. 1634–1643, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Santos, P.-C. Yang, J. D. Söderholm, M. Benjamin, and M. H. Perdue, “Role of mast cells in chronic stress induced colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in the rat,” Gut, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 630–636, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. Alonso, M. Vicario, M. Pigrau, B. Lobo, and J. Santos, “Intestinal barrier function and the brain-gut axis,” in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 817, pp. 73–113, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  78. K. R. Groschwitz, R. Ahrens, H. Osterfeld et al., “Mast cells regulate homeostatic intestinal epithelial migration and barrier function by a chymase/Mcpt4-dependent mechanism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 52, pp. 22381–22386, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. A. Cohn, N. C. Dougherty, and W. F. King Jr., “Histamine stimulates calcium-mediated protein phosphorylation in a colonic epithelial cell line,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 811–816, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. I. Wasserman, K. E. Barrett, P. A. Huott, G. Beuerlein, M. F. Kagnoff, and K. Dharmsathaphorn, “Immune-related intestinal Cl- secretion. I. Effect of histamine on the T84 cell line,” American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, vol. 254, no. 1, pp. C53–C62, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. T. Vanuytsel, S. van Wanrooy, H. Vanheel et al., “Psychological stress and corticotropin-releasing hormone increase intestinal permeability in humans by a mast cell-dependent mechanism,” Gut, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1293–1299, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. H. R. P. Miller, R. G. Woodbury, J. F. Huntley, and G. Newlands, “Systemic release of mucosal mast-cell protease in primed rats challenged with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis,” Immunology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 471–479, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. L. Scudamore, E. M. Thornton, L. Mcmillan, G. F. J. Newlands, and H. R. P. Miller, “Release of the mucosal mast cell granule chymase, rat mast cell protease-II, during anaphylaxis is associated with the rapid development of paracellular permeability to macromolecules in rat jejunum,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 182, no. 6, pp. 1871–1881, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. E. Crowe, P. Sestini, and M. H. Perdue, “Allergic reactions of rat jejunal mucosa. Ion transport responses to luminal antigen and inflammatory mediators,” Gastroenterology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 74–82, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. H. Perdue, S. Masson, B. K. Wershil, and S. J. Galli, “Role of mast cells in ion transport abnormalities associated with intestinal anaphylaxis. Correction of the diminished secretory response in genetically mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice by bone marrow transplantation,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 687–693, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. P. Colgan, M. B. Resnick, C. A. Parkos et al., “IL-4 directly modulates function of a model human intestinal epithelium,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 2122–2129, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Heyman, N. Darmon, C. Dupont et al., “Mononuclear cells from infants allergic to cow's milk secrete tumor necrosis factor α, altering intestinal function,” Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1514–1523, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. L. Mahraoui, M. Heyman, O. Plique, M. T. Droy-Lefaix, and J. F. Desjeux, “Apical effect of diosmectite on damage to the intestinal barrier induced by basal tumour necrosis factor-alpha,” Gut, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 339–343, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. Holmgren, J. Fryklund, and H. Larsson, “Gamma-interferon-mediated down-regulation of electrolyte secretion by intestinal epithelial cells: a local immune mechanism?” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 499–503, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. Zünd, J. L. Madara, A. L. Dzus, C. S. Awtrey, and S. P. Colgan, “Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 differentially regulate epithelial chloride secretion,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 13, pp. 7460–7464, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. E. B. Chang, M. W. Musch, and L. Mayer, “Interleukins 1 and 3 stimulate anion secretion in chicken intestine,” Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1518–1524, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. M. Wilcz-Villega, S. McClean, and M. A. O'Sullivan, “Mast cell tryptase reduces junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) expression in intestinal epithelial cells: implications for the mechanisms of barrier dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 108, pp. 1140–1151, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. I. L. Park et al., “Subjects with diarrhea-predominant IBS have increased rectal permeability responsive to tryptase,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2922–2928, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. Piche, G. Barbara, P. Aubert et al., “Impaired intestinal barrier integrity in the colon of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: involvement of soluble mediators,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 196–201, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. V. Andresen, V. M. Montori, J. Keller, C. P. West, P. Layer, and M. Camilleri, “Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 3 antagonists on symptom relief and constipation in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 545–555, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. R. Rahimi, S. Nikfar, and M. Abdollahi, “Efficacy and tolerability of alosetron for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in women and men: a meta-analysis of eight randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trials,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 884–901, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. B. W. Evans, W. K. Clark, D. J. Moore, and P. J. Whorwell, “Tegaserod for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation,” Cochrane database of systematic reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD003960, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. L. Degen, C. Petrig, D. Studer, S. Schroller, and C. Beglinger, “Effect of tegaserod on gut transit in male and female subjects,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 821–826, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. P. R. Gibson, J. Varney, S. Malakar, and J. G. Muir, “Food components and irritable bowel syndrome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 148, no. 6, pp. 1158–1174.e4, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Simrén, A. Månsson, A. M. Langkilde et al., “Food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome,” Digestion, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 108–115, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. L. Böhn, S. Störsrud, H. Törnblom, U. Bengtsson, and M. Simrén, “Self-reported food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS are common and associated with more severe symptoms and reduced quality of life,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 634–641, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. W. E. Whitehead, O. Palsson, and K. R. Jones, “Systematic review of the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome with other disorders: what are the causes and implications?” Gastroenterology, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 1140–1156, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. D. A. Drossman, Z. Li, J. Leserman, T. C. Toomey, and Y. J. B. Hu, “Health status by gastrointestinal diagnosis and abuse history,” Gastroenterology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 999–1007, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. Garakani, T. Win, S. Virk, S. Gupta, D. Kaplan, and P. S. Masand, “Comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome in psychiatric patients: a review,” American Journal of Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. R. Cuomo, P. Andreozzi, F. P. Zito, V. Passananti, G. De Carlo, and G. Sarnelli, “Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 27, pp. 8837–8845, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. J. M. van Wanrooij, M. M. Wouters, L. Van Oudenhove et al., “Sensitivity testing in irritable bowel syndrome with rectal capsaicin stimulations: role of TRPV1 upregulation and sensitization in visceral hypersensitivity?” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 99–109, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. C. Alonso, M. Guilarte, M. Vicario et al., “Acute experimental stress evokes a differential gender-determined increase in human intestinal macromolecular permeability,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 740–e349, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. F. Barreau, C. Cartier, L. Ferrier, J. Fioramonti, and L. Bueno, “Nerve growth factor mediates alterations of colonic sensitivity and mucosal barrier induced by neonatal stress in rats,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 524–534, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. L. Wang, A. M. Stanisz, B. K. Wershil, S. J. Galli, and M. H. Perdue, “Substance P induces ion secretion in mouse small intestine through effects on enteric nerves and mast cells,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 269, no. 1, pp. G85–G92, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. G. Bassotti, V. Villanacci, R. Nascimbeni et al., “Colonic mast cells in controls and slow transit constipation patients,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth et al., “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 706–713, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. R. Atreya, H. Neumann, C. Neufert et al., “In vivo imaging using fluorescent antibodies to tumor necrosis factor predicts therapeutic response in Crohn's disease,” Nature Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 313–318, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus