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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2016, Article ID 4704309, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4704309
Research Article

Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population

1School of Nutrition Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Av. Cedros y Calle Sauces S/N, Fracc. Los Fresnos, 80019 Culiacán, SIN, Mexico
2Departamento de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Alimentarias, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 No. 53-108, Ciudadela Universitaria, Medellín, Colombia
3Regional Program for Ph.D. in Biotechnology, FCQB, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, 80013 Culiacán, SIN, Mexico

Received 8 April 2016; Revised 29 June 2016; Accepted 9 August 2016

Academic Editor: Isabel Comino

Copyright © 2016 Francisco Cabrera-Chávez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD) in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI) 7.9% (6.5–9.6) and 5.3% (4.1–6.7) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7–7.4), wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3–1.4), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5–5.8). There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17–0.96). Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%). The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2–19.5). Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%). Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms.