Gastroenterology Research and Practice / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms

Table 1

Probiotics application in experimental ALD.

AnimalAlcohol feeding modelProbiotics/(prebiotics) treatmentEffectMechanism based on the studyReference

RatLiquid diet containing ethanol and corn oil for 1 monthA daily bolus of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG at 1010 CFU/mL for 1 monthImproved liver pathology score and lowered plasma endotoxin levelPrevention of endotoxemia, improved barrier and immune function[34]

Rat15 g/kg/day ethanol consumption for 2 weeksLiquid diet through an intragastric tube containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Bifidobacterium pretreatment for 1 weekNormalized AST/ALT levels, improved liver histological score, and lowered plasma endotoxin levelPrevention of endotoxemia, improved barrier and immune function[35]

MouseLieber-DeCarli diet (5% EtOH, w/v) for 4/5 weeksHeat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 orally administered at 100/500 mg/5 mL/kg/day for 5 weeksReduced serum ALT and AST, TG, and liver total cholesterolReduction of gut-derived endotoxin through induction of heat shock protein[52]

RatGavage with gradually increased ethanol concentration to 8 g/kg/day in 10 weeksGavage with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG at 2.5 × 107 CFU/mL/day or oats 10 g/kg/day for 10 weeksNormalized colonic microbiota composition, reduced hepatic steatosis, and improved alcoholic steatohepatitisPrevention of colonic mucosa-associated dysbiosis, reduction of oxidative stress in intestine and liver[14, 36]

MouseLieber-DeCarli liquid diet (5% EtOH, w/v) for 8 weeksCulture broth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG added to the diet at 109 CFU/mouse/day for the last 2 weeksReduced plasma ALT, endotoxin level, liver steatosis, and inflammationIncreasing HIF-mediated mucosal protecting factors and tight junction proteins, positive modification of gut microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, and desensitization of macrophage to endotoxin[17, 38, 71]

MouseAcute binge, one dose of 6 g/kg ethanolGavage with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant at a dose of equivalent to 109 CFU/mouse/day pretreatment for 5 daysReduced liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, hepatic ROS, and serum endotoxin levelIncreasing HIF-mediated mucosal protecting factors and intestinal tight junction proteins[53]

Rat3 doses of 5 g/kg ethanol administration every 12 hoursIntragastric feeding of VSL#3/heat-killed
VSL#3 at 0.6 g/kg body wt. pretreatment for 30 min
Lowered plasma endotoxin levelRegulation of the ecological balance of gut microbiota, prevention of TNF-α, decreasing epithelial permeability, and increasing tight junction proteins—ZO-1, occludin[37]

MouseMultiple doses of 5 g/kg/day ethanol, plus multiple LPS for a total of 11 weeksIntragastric feeding of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052 (1 mg/mL/day) for the last 2 weeksImproved hepatitis activity, increased body weightModulation of the gut-liver axis: reduction of ALT, TLR4, TNF-α, and IL-1β expression; increasing IL-10 expression[67]

MouseLieber-DeCarli liquid diet (5% EtOH, w/v) for 4 weeksLiquid diet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant at a dose of equivalent to 109 CFU/mouse/day pretreatment for 4 weeksReduced hepatic steatosis and inflammation, reduced endotoxemia; normalized fatty acid levels in mouse liver and fecesRestoration of occludin in ileum mediated by the inhibition of miR122a expression, increasing hepatic AMPK activation, and inhibition of hepatic apoptosis; increasing intestinal and decreasing hepatic fatty acid and increasing amino acid concentration[5456]