Gastroenterology Research and Practice / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms

Table 2

Probiotics in ALD—clinical evidence.

DiseaseTreatment and durationObservationsReference

Alcoholic cirrhosis patients, = 10VSL#3 treatment for 3 monthsReduced plasma ALT, AST, and GGT levels; normalized plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels; and decreased MDA, 4-HNE, and S-NO levels[40]

Alcoholic cirrhosis patients, = 20Lactobacillus casei Shirota for 4 weeks of treatmentNormalized phagocytic capacity, decreased TLR4, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL10 levels[41]

Alcoholic cirrhosis patients, = 34Escherichia coli Nissle for 42 days of treatmentImprovement in intestinal colonization, restored microflora in feces, and reduced endotoxin levels in blood[43]

Alcoholic cirrhosis patients, = 12A mixture of different lactic acid bacteria strains treated for 2 monthsPositive effects on ecological balance of enteric commensals, reduced ALT, γ-GT, and TNF-α levels[39]

Patients with alcoholic psychosis and liver disease, = 66Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum 8PA3 for 5 days of treatmentIncreased numbers of both Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli; reduction in ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, and total bilirubin[23]

Alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy patients 
= 89
VSL#3 treatment for 6 monthsReduced risk of hospitalization for HE (hepatic encephalopathy), improved CTP (Child-Turcotte-Pugh) and MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) scores[42]