Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9086581, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9086581
Review Article

Optimal First-Line Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection: Recent Strategies

Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Received 11 August 2016; Revised 15 October 2016; Accepted 3 November 2016

Academic Editor: Vikram Kate

Copyright © 2016 Ju Yup Lee and Kyung Sik Park. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Y. Graham and L. Fischbach, “Helicobacter pylori treatment in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance,” Gut, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1143–1153, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Mégraud, “H pylori antibiotic resistance: prevalence, importance, and advances in testing,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1374–1384, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. G. Kim, H.-K. Jung, H. L. Lee et al., “Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea, 2013 revised edition,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1371–1386, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. J. Gong, S.-C. Yun, H.-Y. Jung et al., “Meta-analysis of first-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in Korea: is it time to change?” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 704–713, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Boyanova and I. Mitov, “Geographic map and evolution of primary Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibacterial agents,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 59–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. Z. Liu, Y. Xie, H. Cheng et al., “Fourth Chinese National Consensus Report on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 211–221, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S.-Y. Lee, “Current progress toward eradicating helicobacter pylori in east Asian countries: differences in the 2013 revised guidelines between China, Japan, and South Korea,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1493–1502, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Su, Y. Li, H. Li et al., “Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolated in the Southeast Coastal Region of China,” Helicobacter, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 274–279, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. Cai, L. Zhou, W. Ren, L. Deng, and M. Yu, “Variables influencing outcome of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in South China,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 91–96, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Q.-J. Sun, X. Liang, Q. Zheng et al., “Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 40, pp. 5118–5121, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Asaka, “A new approach for elimination of gastric cancer deaths in Japan,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 1272–1276, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Horiki, F. Omata, M. Uemura et al., “Annual change of primary resistance to clarithromycin among helicobacter pylori isolates from 1996 through 2008 in Japan,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 86–90, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Shimoyama, S. Fukuda, T. Mikami, M. Fukushi, and A. Munakata, “Efficacy of metronidazole for the treatment of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection in a Japanese population,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 927–930, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Kobayashi, K. Murakami, M. Kato et al., “Changing antimicrobial susceptibility epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori strains in Japan between 2002 and 2005,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 4006–4010, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Malfertheiner, F. Megraud, C. A. O'Morain et al., “Management of Helicobacter pylori infection—the Maastricht IV/Florence Consensus Report,” Gut, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 646–664, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P.-I. Hsu, P.-C. Lin, and D. Y. Graham, “Hybrid therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a systemic review and meta-analysis,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 45, pp. 12954–12962, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. J. Jo, D. H. Lee, S. J. Kang et al., “Comparison of the efficacy of Bismuth containing PPI-based quadruple therapy with PPI-based triple therapy only as first-line Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection,” Korean Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 259–264, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  18. E. Gené, X. Calvet, R. Azagra, and J. P. Gisbert, “Triple vs. quadruple therapy for treating Helicobacter pylori infection: a meta-analysis,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1137–1143, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Venerito, T. Krieger, T. Ecker, G. Leandro, and P. Malfertheiner, “Meta-analysis of bismuth quadruple therapy versus clarithromycin triple therapy for empiric primary treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Digestion, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 33–45, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Malfertheiner, F. Bazzoli, J.-C. Delchier et al., “Helicobacter pylori eradication with a capsule containing bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus clarithromycin-based triple therapy: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9769, pp. 905–913, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. EI-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, and J. Spénard, “Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 562–567, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. de Francesco, F. Giorgio, C. Hassan et al., “Worldwide H. pylori antibiotic resistance: a systematic review,” Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 409–414, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Megraud, S. Coenen, A. Versporten et al., “Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics in Europe and its relationship to antibiotic consumption,” Gut, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 34–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Zullo, V. Rinaldi, S. Winn et al., “A new highly effective shout-term therapy schedule for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 715–718, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. S. Jafri, C. A. Hornung, and C. W. Howden, “Meta-analysis: sequential therapy appears superior to standard therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients naive to treatment,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 148, no. 12, pp. 923–931, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Gatta, N. Vakil, G. Leandro, F. Di Mario, and D. Vaira, “Sequential therapy or triple therapy for helicobacter pylori infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults and children,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 3069–3079, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. L. Tong, Z. H. Ran, J. Shen, and S. D. Xiao, “Sequential therapy vs. standard triple therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 41–53, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Urgesi, G. Pelecca, R. Cianci et al., “Helicobacter pylori infection: is sequential therapy superior to standard triple therapy? A single-centre Italian study in treatment-naive and non-treatment-naive patients,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 315–318, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. A. Paoluzi, E. Visconti, F. Andrei et al., “Ten and eight-day sequential therapy in comparison to standard triple therapy for eradicating helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized controlled study on efficacy and tolerability,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 261–266, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Romano, A. Cuomo, A. G. Gravina et al., “Empirical levofloxacin-containing versus clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised trial,” Gut, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 1465–1470, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Zullo, G. Scaccianoce, V. De Francesco et al., “Concomitant, sequential, and hybrid therapy for H. pylori eradication: A Pilot Study,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 647–650, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Molina-Infante, B. Perez-Gallardo, M. Fernandez-Bermejo et al., “Clinical trial: clarithromycin vs. levofloxacin in first-line triple and sequential regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1077–1084, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. G. McNicholl, A. C. Marin, J. Molina-Infante et al., “Randomised clinical trial comparing sequential and concomitant therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication in routine clinical practice,” Gut, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 244–249, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Gatta, N. Vakil, D. Vaira, and C. Scarpignato, “Global eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis of sequential therapy,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 347, no. 7920, Article ID f4587, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Yoon, D. H. Lee, N. Kim et al., “Meta-analysis: is sequential therapy superior to standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in Asian adults?” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1801–1809, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. S. Kim, B. W. Kim, S. J. Hong et al., “Sequential therapy versus triple therapy for the first line treatment of Helicobacter pylori in Korea: a nationwide randomized trial,” Gut Liver, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 556–561, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. D. Vaira, A. Zullo, N. Vakil et al., “Sequential therapy versus standard triple-drug therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 146, no. 8, pp. 556–563, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Zullo, F. Perna, C. Hassan et al., “Primary antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in northern and central Italy,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1429–1434, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. P. Thyagarajan, P. Ray, B. K. Das et al., “Geographical difference in antimicrobial resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates from Indian patients: multicentric study,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1373–1378, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J.-W. Chung, Y. K. Jung, Y. J. Kim et al., “Ten-day sequential versus triple therapy for Helicobacterpylori eradication: a prospective, open-label, randomized trial,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1675–1680, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Vaira, A. Zullo, C. Hassan, G. Fiorini, and N. Vakil, “Sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: the time is now!,” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 317–322, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. V. De Francesco, M. Margiotta, A. Zullo et al., “Clarithromycin-resistant genotypes and eradication of Helicobacter pylori,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 94–100, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. V. Mahachai, N. Sirimontaporn, S. Tumwasorn, D. Thong-Ngam, and R.-K. Vilaichone, “Sequential therapy in clarithromycin-sensitive and -resistant Helicobacter pylori based on polymerase chain reaction molecular test,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 825–828, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. Sirimontaporn, D. Thong-Ngam, S. Tumwasorn, and V. Mahachai, “Ten-day sequential therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection in Thailand,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 1071–1075, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. W. Chung, J. P. Han, K. O. Kim et al., “Ten-day empirical sequential or concomitant therapy is more effective than triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a multicenter, prospective study,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 888–892, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  46. R. Francavilla, E. Lionetti, S. P. Castellaneta et al., “Improved efficacy of 10-day sequential treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children: a randomized trial,” Gastroenterology, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 1414–1419, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Zullo, L. Gatta, V. De Francesco et al., “High rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication with sequential therapy in elderly patients with peptic ulcer: A Prospective Controlled Study,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1419–1424, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Tursi, W. Elisei, G. Giorgetti, M. Picchio, and G. Brandimarte, “Efficacy, tolerability, and factors affecting the efficacy of the sequential therapy in curing Helicobacter pylori infection in clinical setting,” Journal of Investigative Medicine, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 917–920, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Manfredi, B. Bizzarri, and G. L. de'Angelis, “Helicobacter pylori infection: sequential therapy followed by levofloxacin-containing triple therapy provides a good cumulative eradication rate,” Helicobacter, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 246–253, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Pontone, M. Standoli, R. Angelini, and P. Pontone, “Efficacy of H. pylori eradication with a sequential regimen followed by rescue therapy in clinical practice,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 541–543, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. S. Essa, J. R. Kramer, D. Y. Graham, and G. Treiber, “Meta-analysis: four-drug, three-antibiotic, non-bismuth-containing “concomitant therapy” versus triple therapy for helicobacter pylori eradication,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 109–118, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. A. Fischbach, S. V. Van Zanten, and J. Dickason, “Meta-analysis: the efficacy, adverse events, and adherence related to first-line anti-Helicobacter pylori quadruple therapies,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1071–1082, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. P. Gisbert and X. Calvet, “Review article: non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant) therapy for eradication of Helicobater pylori,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 604–617, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. P. Gisbert and X. Calvet, “Update on non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant) therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori,” Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 23–34, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. M. Jung, D. Y. Cheung, J. I. Kim, I. Kim, and H. Seong, “Comparing the efficacy of concomitant therapy with sequential therapy as the first-line therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol. 2016, Article ID 1293649, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. M. Park, J. S. Kim, B. W. Kim, J. S. Ji, and H. Choi, “A randomised clinical trial comparing 10- or 14-day sequential therapy and 10- or 14-day concomitant therapy for the first line empirical treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. Z. Q. Song and L. Y. Zhou, “Hybrid, sequential and concomitant therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 4766–4775, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  58. L. C. Lin, T. H. Hsu, K. W. Huang, and K. W. Tam, “Nonbismuth concomitant quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in Chinese regions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 5445–5453, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  59. B. Tepeš, M. Vujasinović, M. Šeruga, M. Stefanovič, A. Forte, and S. Jeverica, “Randomized clinical trial comparing 10-day sequential, 7-day concomitant and 7-day standard triple therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 676–683, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. Y. Graham, Y.-C. Lee, and M.-S. Wu, “Rational Helicobacter pylori therapy: evidence-based medicine rather than medicine-based evidence,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 177.e3–186.e3, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P.-I. Hsu, D.-C. Wu, J.-Y. Wu, and D. Y. Graham, “Modified sequential Helicobacter pylori therapy: proton pump inhibitor and amoxicillin for 14 days with clarithromycin and metronidazole added as a quadruple (hybrid) therapy for the final 7 days,” Helicobacter, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 139–145, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. I. Hsu, D.-C. Wu, J.-Y. Wu, and D. Y. Graham, “Is there a benefit to extending the duration of Helicobacter pylori sequential therapy to 14 days?” Helicobacter, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 146–152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. H. Oh, D. H. Lee, K. K. Kang et al., “The efficacy of hybrid therapy as first-line regimen for Helicobacter pylori infection compared with sequential therapy,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1171–1176, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Molina-Infante, M. Romano, M. Fernandez-Bermejo et al., “Optimized nonbismuth quadruple therapies cure most patients with Helicobacter pylori infection in populations with high rates of antibiotic resistance,” Gastroenterology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 121.e1–128.e1, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P.-I. Hsu, S.-S. Kao, D.-C. Wu et al., “A randomized controlled study comparing reverse hybrid therapy and standard triple therapy for helicobacter pylori infection,” Medicine, vol. 94, no. 48, Article ID e2104, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H.-Y. Woo, D. I. Park, H. Park et al., “Dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex PCR for the detection of Helicobacter pylori and determination of clarithromycin resistance with gastric biopsy specimens,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. M. Gerrits, A. H. van Vliet, E. J. Kuipers, and J. G. Kusters, “Helicobacter pylori and antimicrobial resistance: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 699–709, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. J. Hwang, N. Kim, H. B. Kim et al., “Change in antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains and the effect of A2143G point mutation of 23S rRNA on the eradication of H. pylori in a single center of Korea,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 536–543, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Sakurai, Y. Mori, H. Okamoto et al., “Acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan 20 mg compared with esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg in healthy adult male subjects—A Randomised Open-Label Cross-Over Study,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 719–730, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Shichijo, Y. Hirata, R. Niikura et al., “Vonoprazan versus conventional proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy as first-line treatment against Helicobacter pylori: a multicenter retrospective study in clinical practice,” Journal of Digestive Diseases, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. K. Murakami, Y. Sakurai, M. Shiino, N. Funao, A. Nishimura, and M. Asaka, “Vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, as a component of first-line and second-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a phase III, randomised, double-blind study,” Gut, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 1439–1446, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. S. Suzuki, T. Gotoda, C. Kusano, K. Iwatsuka, and M. Moriyama, “The efficacy and tolerability of a triple therapy containing a potassium-competitive acid blocker compared with a 7-day, PPI-based low-dose clarithromycin triple therapy,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 949–956, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. H. Noda, S. Noguchi, T. Yoshimine et al., “A novel potassium-competitive acid blocker improves the efficacy of Clarithromycin-containing 7-day triple therapy against Helicobacter pylori,” Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 283–288, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  74. H. Matsumoto, A. Shiotani, R. Katsumata et al., “Helicobacter pylori eradication with proton pump inhibitors or potassium-competitive acid blockers: the effect of clarithromycin resistance,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 3215–3220, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  75. A. Federico, A. G. Gravina, A. Miranda, C. Loguercio, and M. Romano, “Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection: which regimen first?” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 665–672, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus