Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2017, Article ID 1657310, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1657310
Review Article

Esophageal Cancer Metastases to Unexpected Sites: A Systematic Review

1Department of General Surgery, Damascus University Hospitals, Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria
2Laboratory of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria

Correspondence should be addressed to Bayan Alsaid; moc.liamg@nayabrd

Received 12 March 2017; Accepted 24 April 2017; Published 4 June 2017

Academic Editor: Yusuke Sato

Copyright © 2017 Osama Shaheen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Cancer Society, “Cancer Statistics Center,” 2017, https://cancerstatisticscenter.cancer.org.
  2. R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2016,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 7–30, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Ji, J. Cai, Y. Chen, and L. Q. Chen, “Lymphatic spreading and lymphadenectomy for esophageal carcinoma,” World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 90–94, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. L. Li, F. L. Zhang, Y. D. Wang et al., “Characteristics of recurrence after radical esophagectomy with two-field lymph node dissection for thoracic esophageal cancer,” Oncology Letters, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 355–359, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Schlottmann, A. Barbetta, B. Mungo, A. O. Lidor, and D. Molena, “Identification of the lymphatic drainage pattern of esophageal cancer with near-infrared fluorescent imaging,” Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part a, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 268–271, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. I. Abbate, F. Cicchiello, S. Canova et al., “Isolated cardiac metastasis from squamous cell esophageal cancer,” Tumori, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. e118–e121, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Adyanthaya, “Multiple cutaneous metastases from esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, vol. 39, no. 1–4, pp. 22–25, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Aguiar Bujanda, U. Bohn Sarmiento, and J. Aguiar Morales, “Some unusual paraneoplastic syndromes. Case 1. Metastatic squamous cell esophageal cancer to the thumb,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 13, p. 2620, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Akiyama, T. Iwaya, Y. Shioi et al., “Successfully treated advanced esophageal cancer with left axillary lymph node metastasis and synchronous right breast cancer: a case report,” Surgical Case Reports, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 94, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Al-Mamgani, L. Baartman, M. Baaijens, I. de Pree, L. Incrocci, and P. C. Levendag, “Cardiac metastases,” International Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 369–372, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Ananiev, A. A. Chokoeva, T. Stamatov et al., “The “different face” of esophageal cancer: cutaneous manifestation of visceral malignancies,” Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), vol. 165, no. 23-24, pp. 509–511, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. S. Anderson and W. J. Peeples, “Mandibular osseous metastasis from esophageal carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 188–192, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. D. A. Aralikatti and A. G. Nylander, “Orbital metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 458–460, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  14. R. Baijal, P. Hassan, M. Jain, D. Gupta, and N. Shah, “Cutaneous metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 42-43, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. O. Basaran, C. Y. Karabay, A. Guler, and C. Kirma, “Cardiac metastasis of an esophageal cancer: a rare cause of ventricular tachycardia and left ventricle outlet obstruction,” Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi, vol. 41, no. 7, p. 670, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Basu, N. Nair, and A. M. Borges, “Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule,” Indian Journal of Cancer, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 205–207, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  17. I. Botrugno, V. Jemos, L. Cobianchi et al., “A metachronous splenic metastases from esophageal cancer: a case report,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Cavanna, A. Lazzaro, E. Trabacchi, E. Anselmi, D. Vallisa, and R. P. Foroni, “Presentation of esophageal cancer with solitary splenic metastasis,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 636-637, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. P. Chang, C. P. Huang, and H. Chang, “Solitary renal metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma mimicking primary renal neoplasm—a case report and literature review,” BioMedicine (Taipei), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 6, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. H. Chau, W. T. Siu, and M. K. Li, “Nasal tip metastasis from esophageal carcinoma,” Canadian Journal of Surgery, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 224-225, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  21. E. D. Chen, P. Cheng, X. Q. Yan et al., “Metastasis of distal esophageal carcinoma to the thyroid with presentation simulating primary thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. F. Cheng, T. C. Huang, R. F. Yen, K. Y. Tzen, and Y. W. Wu, “Left ventricle metastasis of esophageal cancer mimicking myocardial infarction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. e184–e186, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. H. Chen and C. H. Huang, “Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 35, pp. 12691–12695, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. O. Chino, H. Makuuchi, S. Ozawa et al., “Small intestinal metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma presenting with perforated peritonitis,” The Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 63–68, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  25. Z. Ci, Y. Dexin, W. Qi et al., “Penile and intramuscular metastases from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a rare case report and review of the literature,” Canadian Urological Association Journal, vol. 8, no. 11-12, pp. E875–E877, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. J. Collins, T. H. Wojno, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Metastatic esophageal carcinoma to the orbit,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 228-229, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Consoli, G. Arcangeli, V. Ferrari et al., “Circulating tumor cells and cardiac metastasis from esophageal cancer: a case report,” Case Reports in Oncology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 299–303, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. G. J. Dev, S. Nayak, and B. Sadasivan, “Unilateral renal metastases after definitive chemoradiation in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus: a case report and review literature,” Asian Journal of Oncology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 46–48, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Dong, C. Zuo, Y. Wang, Z. Zhai, and W. Wen, “Isolated nasal tip metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clinical Nuclear Medicine, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 65–67, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Doumit, W. Abouhassan, M. P. Piliang, J. M. Uchin, and F. Papay, “Scalp metastasis from esophageal adenocarcinoma: comparative histopathology dictates surgical approach,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 60–62, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. J. Ellis and P. J. McDonald, “Acute epidural hematoma secondary to skull metastasis from esophageal carcinoma,” The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 491–493, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. M. H. Esfehani, H. Mahmoodzadeh, A. Alibakhshi, and F. Safavi, “Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with pancreatic metastasis: a case report,” Acta Medica Iranica, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 760–762, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  33. P. R. Fontes, U. F. Teixeira, F. L. Weachter, J. A. Sampaio, and R. Furian, “A rare case of multiple skin metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus,” The American Journal of Case Reports, vol. 13, pp. 122–124, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. F. Gemmel, H. Roosjen, P. van der Wijk, and J. Collins, “Subcutaneous metastasis from an occult esophageal cancer detected by PET-CT,” Clinical Nuclear Medicine, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 866-867, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. M. Geukens, B. C. Vande Berg, J. Malghem, P. De Nayer, C. Galant, and F. E. Lecouvet, “Ossifying muscle metastases from an esophageal adenocarcinoma mimicking myositis ossificans,” AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 176, no. 5, pp. 1165-1166, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. A. Ghibour and O. Shaheen, “Breast metastasis in esophagus cancer: literature review and report on a case,” Case Reports in Surgery, vol. 2016, Article ID 8121493, 4 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. S. Gillen, M. Feith, R. Gertler et al., “Testicular metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 957–959, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. S. S. Gooptu, G. Singh, and I. Ali, “Uncommon metastasis to thyroid gland presenting as a thyroid nodule,” International Journal of Case Reports and Images, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 615–618, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. P. Grise, H. Botto, and M. Camey, “Esophageal cancer metastatic to kidney: report of 2 cases,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 274–276, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. M. Haque, M. I. Kadir, S. M. Badruddoza, M. A. Alom, and M. M. Kamal, “Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of spleen: a case report,” Mymensingh Medical Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 410–412, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  41. M. H. Hedeshian, X. Wang, B. Xu, J. P. Fontaine, and F. J. Podbielski, “Subcutaneous metastasis from esophageal cancer,” Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 520-521, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. E. Heffernan, D. Fennelly, and C. D. Collins, “Multiple metastases to skeletal muscle from carcinoma of the esophagus detected by FDG PET-CT imaging,” Clinical Nuclear Medicine, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 810-811, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. A. Herbella, M. G. Patti, and G. F. Takassi, “Skin metastases from esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 104-105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. A. K. Hester, D. L. Johnson, and Z. T. Awad, “Spontaneous splenic rupture due to splenic metastasis of esophageal cancer,” The American Surgeon, vol. 76, no. 9, p. 1025, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  45. C. M. Heyer, G. J. Rduch, P. Zgoura, U. Stachetzki, E. Voigt, and V. Nicolas, “Metastasis to skeletal muscle from esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1000–1004, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. C. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, S. S. Sun, C. F. Yang, and C. H. Kao, “Parotid gland metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus detected by FDG PET/CT,” Clinical Nuclear Medicine, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1001-1002, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. K. F. L. S. Hsu, C. L. Ho, J. S. Jin, Y. M. Chang, and C. Tzao, “Abdominal subcutaneous metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 217–219, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  48. Y. Ichiki, M. Morita, K. Yano, K. Sugio, K. Yasumoto, and N. Hirose, “Iris metastasis of esophageal cancer,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 1782–1784, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. Ide, T. Shimoyama, H. Haga, and N. Horie, “Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus metastatic to the gingiva: a case report,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 584–587, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. Y. Imauchi, K. Kaga, K. Nibu, N. Sakuma, Y. Iino, and K. Kodera, “Metastasis of cervical esophageal carcinoma to the temporal bone—a study of the temporal bone histology,” Auris, Nasus, Larynx, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 169–172, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Cincibuch, M. Myslivecek, B. Melichar et al., “Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: single center experience,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 35, pp. 4962–4966, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. B. Iwanski, A. Block, G. Keller et al., “Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma presenting with extensive skin lesions: a case report,” Journal of Medical Case Reports, vol. 2, p. 115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Iwase, T. Indo, M. Shimada et al., “Esophageal cancer with colonic metastasis successfully treated by chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin,” International Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 398–402, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Jena, S. Bhattacharya, A. Gupta, S. Roy, and N. K. Sinha, “Breast metastasis from esophagogastric junction cancer: a case report,” Case Reports in Surgery, vol. 2014, Article ID 489427, 4 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. C. H. Kao, C. T. Shang, Y. C. Lin, Y. F. Li, and Y. L. Cheng, “Esophageal carcinoma presented with a skull tumour,” Canadian Journal of Surgery, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. E215–E216, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  56. M. Kataoka, K. Shigemitsu, S. Tanabe, T. Ohara, T. Takahata, and S. Nose, “Sudden death from metastatic esophageal cancer to the ventricular septum,” The Japanese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 365–368, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. A. Kato, K. I. Mafune, J. Kuroda et al., “A case of esophageal cancer with mesojejunal lymph node metastasis after total gastrectomy,” Esophagus, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 311–314, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. V. Khurana and T. Singh, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site metastasis in esophageal cancer,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 612, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Kimura, M. Miyazaki, H. Saeki, T. Ohga, T. Nozoe, and K. Sugimachi, “Solitary splenic metastasis derived from esophageal cancer,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 50, no. 53, pp. 1336-1337, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  60. J. Knezevic, N. Radovanovic, A. Simic et al., “Isolated choroidal metastasis from primary adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus: a case report,” Diseases of the Esophagus, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 41–43, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Koyama, K. Hashimoto, K. Yamaguchi, and H. Fukuda, “Esophageal carcinoma metastatic centrally to the mandible: a case report with implication of cell proliferating marker Ki-67,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 640–645, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. O. N. Kozyreva, D. A. Mezentsev, D. R. King, C. R. Gomez-Fernandez, B. Ardalan, and A. S. Livingstone, “Asymptomatic muscle metastases from esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 3780–3783, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. H. Ku, H. K. Park, E. Lee, D. S. Heo, and H. H. Kim, “Solitary squamous cell carcinoma in the kidney after metachronous development of esophageal and lung cancer,” Tumori, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 93–95, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  64. Y. C. L. J. Lai, P. C. Lin, W. S. Wang, and Y. C. Chen, “Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with solitary renal metastasis-a case report,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research., vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 230–232, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  65. K. P. Lawes, M. Danford, and S. Di Palma, “Delayed metastasis to the mandible of esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 416–420, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. J. Ledderose and A. S. Englhard, “Isolated nasal tip metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: case report and literature review,” Case Reports in Otolaryngology, vol. 2015, Article ID 246094, 4 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. K. Orlicka, S. Maynard, and M. Bouin, “Unusual presentation of a metastatic esophageal carcinoma,” Case Reports in Gastroenterology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 273–278, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Lee, S. Lee, J. Sohn, and Y. H. Yoon, “Clinical features of uveal metastases in Korean patients,” Retina, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 491–494, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. M. Lekse, J. Zhang, and L. A. Mawn, “Metastatic gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma to the extraocular muscles,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 318–321, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. Levin, L. Ogden, and B. Karnath, “Multiple cutaneous nodules presenting as metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus,” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 19, no. 5, p. 18173, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  71. D. H. Lim, Y. H. Im, S. H. Ji et al., “Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma recurring as a solitary renal mass,” Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 271–274, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. J. Lindenmann, F. Gollowitsch, V. Matzi, C. Porubsky, A. Maier, and F. M. Smolle-Juettner, “Occult solitary submucosal jejunal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 44, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Lindenmann, V. Matzi, C. Porubsky, A. Maier, and F. M. Smolle-Juettner, “Complete resection of an isolated chest wall metastasis from esophageal carcinoma after transhiatal esophagectomy and gastric pull-up at one and a half-year follow-up,” Journal of Thoracic Oncology, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 773–776, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Maeda, T. Goto, M. Harigai, T. Itoh, T. Moriki, and T. Miyashita, “Myocardial metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus,” General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 440–445, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. G. N. Magrath, C. M. Proctor, W. A. Reardon, K. G. Patel, E. J. Lentsch, and A. S. Eiseman, “Esophageal adenocarcinoma and urothelial carcinoma orbital metastases masquerading as infection,” Orbit, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 51–55, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Y. S. Mao, M. Suntharalingam, and M. J. Krasna, “Management of late distant metastases after trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 1742-1743, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. S. Masamatti, A. B. Pandav, M. P. Kulkarni, and K. R. Sulhyan, “Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma metastasizing to gingiva,” International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 69–71, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. T. Matsutani, T. Nomura, N. Hagiwara et al., “Laparoscopic diagnosis for spermatic cord metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case,” Journal of Nippon Medical School, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 304–307, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. N. Mehta, D. N. Bailoor, V. M. Tarsariya, and B. P. Parikh, “From esophagus to gingiva: a rare case of metastatic adenocarcinoma,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 428–431, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. Miyoshi, S. Fuchimoto, T. Ohsaki et al., “A case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the breast,” Breast Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–61, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. Mohanty, D. Dutta, S. Das, D. R. Samanta, and S. Senapati, “Carcinoma esophagus with isolated metatarsal metastasis,” Indian Journal of Cancer, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 112-113, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. F. Moreno Racionero, A. B. de Andres, M. Bedate Nunez et al., “Unusual relationship between skin lesions and esophageal cancer: a case report and review of literature,” Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 115–119, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. G. Morris, J. Oda, M. H. Heinemann, and D. H. Ilson, “Choroidal metastases from esophageal adenocarcinoma responding to chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 22, pp. e372–e373, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Moulick, P. Guha, A. Das, and A. K. Das, “Squamous cell carcinoma of proximal esophagus with simultaneous metastases to thyroid and sternum: a case report and review of the literature,” Tanaffos, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  85. S. R. Mousavi, A. Ghasemi, and A. Tajodini, “Tajodini a metastasis of esophageal cancer to finger,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 319-320, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  86. P. Mukker, A. Haridas, N. Kallinkeel, and P. G. Ajith, “A case report of extensive skin metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of lower esophagus and short review of literature,” International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 1735–1738, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  87. Y. Nakamura, K. Nakano, A. Gomi et al., “A metastatic ball tumor in the right atrium originating from esophageal cancer: report of a case,” Surgery Today, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 145–148, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. N. Nakazawa, M. Fukuchi, S. Sakurai et al., “Mucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with intramural gastric metastasis invading liver and pancreas: a case report,” International Surgery, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 458–462, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. A. Tunio, M. AlAsiri, M. M. Fareed, and N. M. Ali, “Tongue metastasis as an initial manifestation of distant metastasis in oesophageal adenocarcinoma,” Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 920–923, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  90. H. Narendra and S. Ray, “Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus,” Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 49–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. Nielsen, J. A. Andersen, F. W. Henriksen et al., “Metastases to the breast from extramammary carcinomas,” Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica. Section a, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 251–256, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  92. M. T. Norooz, L. Montaser-Kouhsari, H. Ahmadi, M. J. Zavarei, and P. Daryaei, “Breast mass as the initial presentation of esophageal carcinoma: a case report,” Cases Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 7049, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. W. E. Norris, J. L. Perry, F. J. Moawad, and J. D. Horwhat, “An unusual presentation of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma presenting as thigh pain,” Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 371–374, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  94. H. Okamoto, Y. Hara, M. Chin et al., “An extremely rare case of pancreatic metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 593–597, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. S. M. Oliveira, A. Goncalves, C. Cruz et al., “Cardiac metastasis from epidermoid esophageal cancer mimicking anterior myocardial infarction,” Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 163–166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. T. Ono, S. Motoyama, R. Saito, M. Okuyama, H. Imano, and J. Ogawa, “Mesojejunal lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer following total gastrectomy,” The Japanese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 542–544, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. A. Pai, S. Sonawane, N. C. Purandare et al., “Penile metastasis from esophageal squamous carcinoma after curative resection,” Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 238–241, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  98. D. Pal, A. Bahl, J. B. Sharma, and R. R. Rao, “Carcinoma esophagus: a rare primary malignancy for ocular metastasis,” Indian Journal of Cancer, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 480-481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. H. K. Parikh, R. K. Deshpande, D. V. Swaroop, and P. B. Desai, “Choroidal metastasis from primary adenocarcinoma of the esophagus—a case report,” Indian Journal of Cancer, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 210–214, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  100. C. Park, J. Y. Jang, Y. H. Kim et al., “A case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with pancreatic metastasis,” Clinical Endoscopy, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 197–200, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. M. Park, D. S. Kim, S. H. Oh, Y. S. Kwon, and K. H. Lee, “A case of esophageal adenocarcinoma metastasized to the scalp,” Annals of Dermatology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 164–167, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. D. C. Pedraza, J. Santos-Juanes, D. C. Fernandez, and A. Perez-Arias, “Cutaneous metastasis in the face as the first manifestation of esophageal adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review,” European Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 147–152, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. H. M. Pollack, M. P. Banner, and M. A. Amendola, “Other malignant neoplasms of the renal parenchyma,” Seminars in Roentgenology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 260–274, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. D. Puranik, N. C. Purandare, S. Sawant et al., “Asymptomatic myocardial metastasis from cancers of upper aero-digestive tract detected on FDG PET/CT: a series of 4 cases,” Cancer Imaging, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 16, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  105. J. Purkayastha, “Isolated bony metastasis to upper limb from carcinoma of the oesophagus: report of three cases,” Hand (N Y)., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 137–139, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. U. Rehman, D. W. Cope, and J. N. Basile, “Metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma to skeletal muscle: a unique event,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 1076–1078, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  107. M. Rivas-Rivas, D. Jimenez-Gallo, N. Navas-Garcia, C. Albarran-Planelles, and C. Rodriguez-Ramos, “Skin metastases as initial manifestation of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma,” Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas, vol. 105, no. 10, pp. 624-625, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. S. Marupaka, S. Modi, and S. Singh, “Esophageal cancer: presentation with unusual bone metastases and review of relevant literature,” The Internet Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 5, no. 1, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  109. E. K. Roh, R. Nord, and D. M. Jukic, “Scalp metastasis from esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Cutis, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 106–108, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  110. A. D. Roy, M. Sherparpa, P. R. Prasad, and R. Lamichanet, “Scalp metastasis of gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma: a rare occurrence,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 159-160, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. Samuel, T. P. Flood, B. Agbemadzo et al., “Choroidal metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Retina, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 874–877, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. J. Sanchez-Jimenez, F. Acebal-Blanco, R. E. Arevalo-Arevalo, and M. Molina-Martinez, “Metastatic tumours in upper maxillary bone of esophageal adenocarcinoma. A case report,” Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 252–257, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  113. D. A. Santeufemia, G. Piredda, G. M. Fadda et al., “Successful outcome after combined chemotherapeutic and surgical management in a case of esophageal cancer with breast and brain relapse,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 34, pp. 5565–5568, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. S. Sanyal, L. Kaman, and S. K. Sinha, “Splenic metastasis from esophageal cancer: report of a case,” Surgery Today, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 988–990, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. T. Sawada, Y. Adachi, M. Noda et al., “Hepatic portal venous gas in pancreatic solitary metastasis from an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 103–105, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. M. Schoneveld, W. L. Hesp, and T. M. Teune, “Parotid metastasis from a gastroesophageal carcinoma: report of a case,” Digestive Surgery, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 68-69, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. S. R. Schultz, R. L. Bree, R. E. Schwab, and G. Raiss, “CT detection of skeletal muscle metastases,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 81–83, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. J. M. Schuster, R. C. Rostomily, C. Hahn, and H. R. Winn, “Two cases of esophageal carcinoma metastatic to the pineal region with a review of the literature,” Surgical Neurology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 100–103, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. C. L. Shields, J. F. McMahon, H. T. Atalay, M. Hasanreisoglu, and J. A. Shields, “Retinal metastasis from systemic cancer in 8 cases,” JAMA Ophthalmology, vol. 132, no. 11, pp. 1303–1308, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. M. Shiraishi, T. Itoh, K. Furuyama et al., “Case of metastatic breast cancer from esophageal cancer,” Diseases of the Esophagus, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 162–165, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  121. R. Silfen, A. Amir, A. Tobar, and D. J. Hauben, “The digital pulp as a presenting site of metastatic esophageal carcinoma,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 183-184, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. D. Singh, A. Sharma, B. Arora, N. K. Shukla, and B. K. Mohanti, “Adenocarcinoma esophagus with choroid metastasis,” Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 112-113, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  123. K. J. Smith, J. Williams, and H. Skelton, “Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus to the skin: new patterns of tumor recurrence and alternate treatments for palliation,” Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 425–431, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. S. P. Smith, K. Grossman, B. K. Rao, H. K. Koh, and T. D. Cooley, “Solitary papule of the lip in recurrent gastroesophageal carcinoma: an unusual presentation of cutaneous metastasis,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 588-589, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. J. W. Smoleroff and S. A. Agatston, “Metastatic carcinoma of the retina: report of a case, with pathologic observations,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 359–365, 1934. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. M. Sokolosky Jr., J. E. Bouquot, and R. W. Graves, “Esophageal carcinoma metastatic to the oral cavity,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 825–827, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. T. Dam, A. Mahmood, K. Linville, M. Bailey, and S. Surani, “Meningeal carcinomatosis: a metastasis from gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma,” Case Reports in Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 245654, 4 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  128. R. H. Stein and J. M. Spencer, “Painful cutaneous metastases from esophageal carcinoma,” Cutis, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 230–232, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  129. B. Struijs, R. de Bree, C. J. van Groeningen, W. J. Mooi, and C. R. Leemans, “Tonsillar metastasis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma,” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 265, no. 1, pp. 127–129, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. I. Sufyan, S. A. Edaigbini, A. A. Liman, M. B. Aminu, and I. Z. Delia, “Esophageal carcinoma presenting with cutaneous nodules,” Sub-Saharan African Journal Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 153–156, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. Y. Sun, X. Yu, and Y. Zhang, “Renal metastasis after esophagectomy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 12, p. 165, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. M. Tamatey, L. Sereboe, M. Tettey, K. Entsua-mensah, and B. Gyan, “Cutaneuos metastasis of carcinoma of the oesophagus to the left shoulder: a case report,” Annales africaines de chirurgie thoracique et cardio-vasculaire, vol. 7, no. 1, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  133. D. Tamiolakis, I. Tsamis, V. Thomaidis et al., “Oral complaints caused from metastases to the mandible and maxilla,” Chirurgia (Bucur), vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 439–442, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  134. T. Tatai, S. Sasaki, N. Sekiguchi, and T. Koizumi, “Iris metastasis of esophageal cancer,” Internal Medicine, vol. 54, no. 15, p. 1941, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. H. Tideman, J. F. Arvier, A. G. Bosanquet, and D. F. Wilson, “Esophageal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the maxilla,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 564–568, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. S. Triantafyllou, D. Georgia, V. Gavriella-Zoi et al., “Cutaneous metastases from esophageal adenocarcinoma,” International Surgery, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 558–561, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. K. Tumuluri, E. Sharkawi, M. Bindra, and J. M. Olver, “Esophageal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the orbit,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 151-152, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. H. Tuna, M. Bozkurt, C. Sarilar, A. O. Heper, and A. Erdogan, “Esophageal carcinoma metastasis to cerebellum: a case report,” Turkish Neurosurgery, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 65–69, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  139. J. N. Ulrich, S. Garg, G. K. Escaravage Jr., and T. M. Meredith, “Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation presenting as small choroidal melanoma,” Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 740640, 3 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. Y. Umebayashi, “Metastasis of esophageal carcinoma manifesting as whitlow-like lesions,” The Journal of Dermatology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 256–259, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  141. V. Vidovic, I. Nikolic, J. Vukojevic et al., “Unusual metastasis of esophageal cancer,” Vojnosanitetski Pregled, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 975–977, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. M. Wang, J. Patel, T. T. Casey, R. Kieffer, and G. D. Dunn, “Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma from the esophagus occurring as small bowel obstruction,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 884–886, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  143. C. C. Willard, C. R. Weber, and W. Buche, “Metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma involving the maxilla,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 1496–1499, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. G. Wu, B. Bybel, R. Brunken, H. Lin, and D. Neumann, “PET detection of solitary distant skeletal muscle metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clinical Nuclear Medicine, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 335–337, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. T. Yamada, S. Yagi, Y. Tatsuzawa et al., “Small intestinal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma associated with small intestinal obstruction: report of a case,” Surgery Today, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 800–802, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. P. H. Yathiraj, A. Patil, and S. Ghosh-Laskar, “Nasal mucosal metastasis in a case of carcinoma esophagus: case report and review of literature,” Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 655, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. Z. X. Ye, C. M. Hsueh, H. B. Leu, and J. W. Chen, “Recurrence of esophageal cancer presents as transient ischemic attack,” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 176–178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. L. Ye-huan, L. Shi-xu, Z. Yi-li, W. Ou-chen, and Z. Xiao-hua, “Unexpected esophageal diseases appeared in thyroid resections,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 13, p. 131, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. H. J. Youn, S. E. Jung, W. S. Chung et al., “Obstruction of right ventricular outflow tract by extended cardiac metastasis from esophageal cancer,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1541–1544, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. S. Datta, J. A. Munoz-Largacha, L. Li, G. Q. Zhao, and V. R. Litle, “Subcutaneous metastases from early stage esophageal adenocarcinoma case report,” International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, vol. 29, pp. 108–112, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. M. K. Na, C. H. Kim, J. M. Kim, J. W. Cheong, J. I. Ryu, and H. W. Kim, “Multiple meningocerebral metastasis and extensive skull metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus: a case report and review of literature,” Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 142–144, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. S. Pokharel, G. Kabbach, S. J. Richter, and L. Chiu, “Metastatic esophageal cancer presenting as an orbital mass,” ACG Case Reports Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, article e154, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  153. S. Tsutsumi, H. Saeki, Y. Nakashima et al., “Distant lymph node metastases caused by esophageal cancer invasion to the lamina propria: a case report,” Surgical Case Reports, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 143, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  154. C. L. Chaffer and R. A. Weinberg, “A perspective on cancer cell metastasis,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6024, pp. 1559–1564, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. G. P. Gupta and J. Massague, “Cancer metastasis: building a framework,” Cell, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 679–695, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. T. J. Weijs, L. Goense, P. S. van Rossum et al., “The peri-esophageal connective tissue layers and related compartments: visualization by histology and magnetic resonance imaging,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 230, no. 2, pp. 262–271, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. H. Akiyama, M. Tsurumaru, H. Udagawa, and Y. Kajiyama, “Radical lymph node dissection for cancer of the thoracic esophagus,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 220, no. 3, pp. 364–373, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  158. X. Ding, J. Zhang, B. Li et al., “A meta-analysis of lymph node metastasis rate for patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer and its implication in delineation of clinical target volume for radiation therapy,” The British Journal of Radiology, vol. 85, no. 1019, pp. e1110–e1119, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. R. Maingot, M. Zinner, and S. W. Ashley, Maingot’s Abdominal Operations, McGraw-Hill Medical; London: McGraw-Hill (distributor), New York, 11 edition, 2007.
  160. E. S. Gray, “Arterial or venous: where are the circulating tumor cells?” eBioMedicine, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 1596-1597, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. J. E. Skandalakis and G. L. Colborn, Skandalakis’ Surgical Anatomy: The Embryologic and Anatomic Basis of Modern Surgery, PMP; [London: McGraw-Hill] [distributor], Athens, Greece, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. J. Budczies, M. von Winterfeld, F. Klauschen et al., “The landscape of metastatic progression patterns across major human cancers,” Oncotarget, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 570–583, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  163. J. F. Bruzzi, M. T. Truong, H. Macapinlac, R. F. Munden, and J. J. Erasmus, “Integrated CT-PET imaging of esophageal cancer: unexpected and unusual distribution of distant organ metastases,” Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. N. C. Nguyen, B. T. Chaar, and M. M. Osman, “Prevalence and patterns of soft tissue metastasis: detection with true whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT,” BMC Medical Imaging, vol. 7, p. 8, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. A. Türkyilmaz, A. Eroğlu, Y. Aydin, Ö. Yilmaz, and N. Karaoğlanoğlu, “Survival in esophageal cancer patients with hematogenous distant organ metastases,” Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 415–421, 2009. View at Google Scholar